A1 & A2: Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes, Animal & Plant Cells (GCSE Biology)

A1 & A2: Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes, Animal & Plant Cells (GCSE Biology)



all living things are made of cells in this video we will be discussing two types of cells prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells life on Earth is classified into five kingdoms bacteria which are made of prokaryotic cells and animals plants fungi and protists stuff all of which are eukaryotes prokaryotes are single-celled organisms without a membrane-bound nucleus the genetic material is free in the cytoplasm and it sounded a single circular chromosome in the center of the south this holds all of the genes required from the bacterium the cell may also contain one or more small rings of DNA for class members these contain additional genes such as those coding for antibiotic resistance bacteria can exchange their plasmids with other bacteria which provides genetic variation bacterial cells consist of a cytoplasm which is where most chemical processes take place ribosomes are answering the sex patterning and these are weapons and synthesis occurs ViSalus surrounded by a cell membrane which controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell and in Alta cell wall made of a substance called peptidoglycan which strengthens itself unlike eukaryotes bacterial cells may also contain serjella which are whip-like structures and Multan locomotion that is they help the sarcomere bacterial cells are smaller than eukaryotes and are usually between 1 to 10 micron the ceramics better understand the size of these cells you should be aware that one millimeter is equal to 1000 micrometer in contrast eukaryotes are much larger greater than 10 micrometers the organisms that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles ledger nesic material is found in chromosomes within the nucleus and the nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane or the nuclear envelope with laws allowing substances for leave the nucleus now let's look at two generalized eukaryotic file structures those of animal and plant cells as we've already established eukaryotic cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus they like bacterial cells also contain cytoplasm which is where most of the chemical processes take place suspended in the cytoplasm on mitochondria in which most energy is released by respiration and ribosomes in which protein synthesis takes place ribosomes are also found in prokaryotic cells although eukaryotic ribosomes are larger than those in four carriers these features are found in both animal and plant cells however plant cells also contain additional organelles as well as these plant cells and algal cells for that matter are surrounded by a cell wall providing struck the south but unlike in bacterial cells these cells are made of a substance called cellulose many plant cells also contain a chloroplasts containing green substance chlorophyll which absorb light energy to be used to make food for the plant in photosynthesis the permanent back door may also be found in the cytoplasm at Frank's cells this is a space filled with cell sap and maintains the to Jeddah T of yourself which is important including the pilot

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