Biology | Natures Great Decomposers:  Molds and Fungus

Biology | Natures Great Decomposers: Molds and Fungus



they are ruined by the millions but the wrong ones will kill you they bring about all kinds of goodness and all kinds of badness they're nature's great decomposers they frighten to destroy our home and of your body they may even blow your mind they've saved millions of lives and may save the world the interface organisms between life and death and in death they'll consume us all now mold and fungus on modern marvels there is definitely a fungus among us every moment of the day the fungal kingdom embraces an estimated million or more species within each of us about a hundred species alone thrive types of fungus most commonly known to us include yeast mushrooms and mold when mold comes into our homes it can be a killer over 25 million Americans suffer from some sort of allergic reaction to mold related toxins called mycotoxins released into the air an undetermined number of these sufferers will die every year from overexposure the fact is any mold can be toxic if that person is allergic to it if these guys look like they're suiting up to confront a biohazard it's because they are their mold remediation specialists and they have to protect themselves by preventing potentially harmful scores from invading my our cuts on their skin or entering their lungs mold removal or remediation is a three billion dollar a year industry in the United States the goal of remediation is to create a clean dry area with a normal sport in other words fewer spores inside the home than out all we want to do is get it to a normal level it is an impossible goal to get a mold free structure in a residential home to remove serious mold growth the remediated often remove carpet and drywall from a room sometimes treating the wood structure behind it there are several ways you can treat the studs depending on the severity of the damage you can sand them in some cases you might even be able to wipe them down for large jobs they can also use dry ice blasting the combination of the extreme cold and the force of the blast causes the mold to shrink and detach itself from the surface once the remediating and treat the infested areas the homeowner can rebuild the work of the remediated is actually the last step in the process before the remediation a mold specialist must come in and evaluate how serious the problem is once he confirms the presence of mold in one area of the home the consultant collects surface and air samples from nearby rooms to locate any cross-contamination these samples make their way to an independent lab for spore count analysis as well as mold identification while the spore is the molds way of traveling through the air it is also its main reproductive body similar to a plant seed from the Spore a – or branch grows a collective of these hyphy known as miss Celia is the molds root-like system the part of the mold visible to the naked eye the mycelium emit enzymes to break down nearby food in this case the wall itself in order to absorb or ingest nutrients more spores more mold they produce colonies and they spread their spores out usually that's in a circular pattern and while many people fear the notorious black mold actually many modes are black and many other colorful molds can be just as dangerous like a snake when threatened some molds release toxins as means of self-defense if these mycotoxins are in high enough concentration the effect on a nearby human can be devastating the problem with mold is it affects everyone differently so what may bother me may not necessarily bother you Carolee a mold affects the very young the very old and any woman's immune compromised mood needs two simple ingredients to thrive virtually any organic substance will do for the food the only thing we can try to control is the water but sometimes nature is a way of spoiling our best efforts during the series of heavy rains the water came up through the floor it began to be absorbed into the building materials as a result of the building materials being cellulose mold began to eat that as a food source and it began to grow another contributing factor to many basement mold problems humidity in this case the relative humidity in the building is 84% and the temperature is 82 degrees Fahrenheit you want a relative humidity in a structure between 40 and 60% the faster the area's dried the less likely you are of having this type of a situation while this wall will have to be removed by specialists a more common form of mold in many homes is found in the bathroom often referred to as mildew it embodies all the risks of other mold invasions but is usually more treatable what's the cause of this almost always the cause it's improper ventilation and you do simple things just to help prevent this from reoccurring leaving the shower door curtain open when you're finished is a great first step when cleaning mold of any size there is at least one rule of thumb the one I would say don't use is bleach the bleach stays on the very surface so when you do use bleach to clean it bleach is always mixed in water the water is doing more damage than the bleach is actually doing beneficial first step is fix the problem dry things out kill it so it doesn't come back and then clean it with any household cleaning you want to use it with except bleach outside the confines of our homes fungi find plenty of places to thrive in nature eighty-five percent of all plants especially trees have developed a relationship that benefits both sides referred to as symbiotic the fungus mycelium acts as nature's great decomposers it breaks down leaves and other organisms into a rich compost which nourishes the tree as a hidden landscape to most people but here is mycelium surfacing and it is all just beneath the top layers there can be more than 300 miles of mycelium underneath my hand there can be more than eight miles in a cubic inch and this mycelium is because the the tree fall the needles feeding the mycelial mat and beneath the mycelium you have dirt so these are the soil magicians of nature they create soils they're the interface organisms between life and death how effective is this symbiotic relationship consider this the largest organism in the world as the mycelium at in Eastern Oregon over 2,200 acres in size more than 2,000 years old that's one cell wall thick scientists consider this 35,000 ton mycelium giant aptly called the humongous fungus as a crucial part of the forest ecosystem it creates food and space for plants and animals to grow by killing and breaking down ancient weakened trees meanwhile other destructive fungi invade and destroy food crops the cost to us farmers can reach over 20 billion dollars a year smut fungi cause cereal crops such as corn to swell and fill with a city mold powdery mildew is one of the worst grape diseases worldwide and then there is Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley crumbs in the 1990s alone in the United States direct damage caused by Fusarium gramineae Arum was estimated to be at approximately 1.3 billion dollars of direct damage to the farmers and indirect damage been to the four billion dollar range well some fungi are busy destroying crops other fungi are busy destroying them researchers at the USDA's National Center for agricultural utilization research are finding ways to take advantage of the natural Battle of fungus against fungus they use fungi to create new environmentally safe fungicides and insecticides refer to as bio controls we're looking to take some of these natural interactions find out how they work mass-produce those organisms and then take them back out into the field so they can have that effect over a larger acreage we're also looking to fungi to attack insect pests there are many fungi that infect and kill insects they use insects as a source of food and that's what we're trying to exploit in terms of biological control or control of insects with fungi one insect that Mark Jackson is studying along with USDA scientists in New Orleans is the subterranean termite subterranean termites are a big problem not in agriculture but in the urban setting and they cause upward of 2 billion dollars a year in damage and in money spent to control these insect house fungi that infect insects are very unique in that they're able to actually penetrate through the insect cuticle consume the insect and then produce spores on the surface of the insect after several days the termite finally disappears in a mass of fungus it's hoped that this will in fact other termites in the nest and lead to collapse of the termite nest different fungi infect insects in ways that are as chilling as a monster movie in the case of cordyceps fungi they actually produce a fruiting body which is a mushroom that comes off the insect this mushroom not too appetizing maybe some moldy beans might be more your taste in some cultures it's considered a stable Tibetans prized cordyceps infected caterpillars for their medicinal properties just one ounce can bring a fungus hunter $900 mold and fungus will return on modern marvels fungi or everywhere in the air around us the soil beneath our feet and sometimes right in our refrigerators and some of us subscribe to the if you can't beat it eat it school of mold and fungus take the Hain Celestial west soy plant in Boulder Colorado it produces over a hundred and fifty tons of tempeh yearly a combination of soybeans water and a beneficial fungus called rise Obispo Legaspi s tempeh is a rich source of both fiber and protein a food staple of Indonesian cooking for over a thousand years this fungal based food spread its way into the American diet in the 1950s we start with a crack d hold soybean that are shipped to us this way the seed coat has been removed because the rhizopus elitists forest won't find fully to the seed coat pain celestial combines put soybeans with the mold in a mixer then workers bag intent or press this new product into smooth flat cakes the importance of tamping the tempeh is you want to have a flat cake and because of the closeness the mold can grow around the beans better over the next 18 to 24 hours mold grows on the beans inside this temperature controlled room the incubator and their average temperature is about 77 degrees all the time the incubator helps replicate that climate in a more controlled setting tempeh is a living breathing organism and just like us it requires oxygen also we generate heat and if you were to feel this piece of tempeh you would notice that it's generating quite a bit of heat it takes someone who really knows tempeh to judge when the mold growth has reached its peak if I were to break this open and you look on the inside you can see that the mycelium or the cottony part of the tempeh has firmly bound the beans together in order to inhibit further growth the tempeh must enter a steam cabinet that kills off the fungus and stops its further development at that point we bring it from the steam cabinet into the cooler where we chill it down for primal packaging after packaging the facility heat treats the tempeh again increasing its shelf life to over 70 days then it's chilled and sent off to the supermarket with a bit of a nutty taste and texture tempeh is a master of disguise you capable of morphing into many Euler dishes across the Atlantic from West soy a company in the United Kingdom figured out how to skip the beans and turn mold into one of the most popular meatless products in Europe warned the United Kingdom alone consumes over 500,000 form-based meals every day referred to as a mycoprotein its fibrous fungal structure helps give foreign products a meat like texture and with the right seasonings well they swear it tastes just like chicken not familiar with these mold inspired foods perhaps you've taken a bite of mold like this commonly used to ripen many cheeses it may appear as the white rind on brie or camembert or the blue highlights within blue cheese or gorgonzola on rockeford you can actually see where the cheese maker injected it right in well mode might be sounding tasty the most familiar edible fungi the mushroom still reigns supreme in the United States 65% of all cultivated mushrooms come from Pennsylvania some come from Creekside farms outside of Worthington the largest mushroom farm in the world Creekside primarily harvests button mushrooms within a hundred and fifty miles of limestone tunnels this adds up to nearly 800 acres of growing space 300 feet below the earth's surface the neat thing about growing mushrooms at this particular facility is that the temperatures pretty much consistent all year round and we maintain about a sixty two degree temperature and about a ninety five percent humidity which allows mushrooms to just recycle themselves pretty much every 24 hours because all mushrooms mature at different rates they must be hand-picked Creekside harvests over 26 million pounds every year but 280 miles away you'll find Kenneth square the self-proclaimed mushroom capital of the world the state's highest concentration of farms is located here including Phillips mushroom farms the largest producer of specialty mushrooms here extraordinary mushrooms burst out of bags bottles and beds with names like maitake pom pom or lion's mane shiitake royal trumpet oyster and yogi cremini and their biggest seller or develop we produce about eight and a half million pounds of mushrooms a year that's all varieties of mushrooms in its it's a challenge but it's fun this has accomplished over roughly 1 million square feet of growing space separated into 125 60-foot long windowless temperature-controlled growing houses in this room we grow both cremini and poor development every portobello starts as a Kamini a portobello is just a mature mushroom that we allow to grow and it gets to the point where the veil separates and exposes the Gill on a closed mushroom we have the stem and the cap and here tucked inside is the Gill but before a mushroom can grow up to be a portobello it must first be spawned in a very sterile very restricted area spawn is the process of uniting a particular fungus with a carrier such as sawdust or millet grain to create a master culture it's then transferred to a bag of sterilized grain this becomes the actual spawn that we would use to produce mushrooms the spawn is then added to a substrate or base of growth in the case of cremini and portabellas the substrates are large beds of compost the farm then creates optimal growing conditions by carefully adjusting temperature humidity fresh air and carbon dioxide levels in the room this white fungus that you see here is actually the mushroom fungus what we eat is the fruiting body of the fungus that's the actual mushroom it's up to harvesters to decide when each mushroom is ready for the market a mushroom actually can double in size in 24 hours and the bigger it is the more it weighs so since we get paid by the pound the more pounds you pick the better off you're going to be and one of the person of the job is that I get to come in here and just grab them wash them off the bed I bite the top right off of it it's great one of the great ways to have a Portobello is just to pop the stem out marinate it in your favorite Italian dressing for about 15 minutes throw it on the grill little asiago cheese little roasted red pepper put in a nice crunchy baguette bellissimo can't eat any better than that – the wild mushroom enthusiast and connoisseur nothing compares to the hunt and for those who can properly identify which mushrooms are safe and delicious hunting can be a profitable hobby hard to find varieties fetch as much as six hundred and fifty dollars a pound it's really becoming very popular and it's very fun because it's like adult Easter egg hunting the edible trophies for many fungi hunters include chanterelle pink dipped coral fried chicken mushrooms king bolete also known as porcini and morel one of the most picked of the wild mushrooms morel hunters often seek these fungi in burned areas of evergreen forests the very following spring will be a flushing realm you might have four to five thousand Pickers in one burnside area if it's a big enough burn this bag here probably weighs about five pounds and this is one of three bags we got in about an hour today fresh wild morels might bring the hunter as much as a hundred and twenty dollars per pound but nothing compares to the most prized fungi of them all the truffle in fact a 3.3 pound Italian white truffle brought over $300,000 at auction if we had it here people could smell it a hundred feet away due to their high cost and strong flavor they're often served in thin slices within other dishes money is of little consequence when it comes to dangerous and magical mushrooms but could they have really caused Santa's reindeer to fly mushrooms are the only non animal food source that naturally produces vitamin D the sunshine vitamin mold and fungus will return on modern marvels thousands of species of wild mushrooms grow in North America bumpy's researchers consider around 100 as being toxic meaning they can affect humans mentally physically and even fatally picking and eating the wrong mushroom can mean the difference between a tasty meal and extreme pain or even death it's critically important that people know which mushrooms are poisonous person which ones are edible obviously if you eat a mushroom and you get sick within two hours probably not a very dangerous mushroom you'll have stomach cramps you know you may have diarrhea you may throw up but that category of toxins that causes an immediate reaction typically are not life-threatening if you have these symptoms 12 hours or later then you may well have entered into a group of highly toxic deadly poisonous mushrooms that we all hear about toxins from life-threatening mushrooms such as the Amanita phalloides or a death camp can damage the kidneys and liver that happened in the 1950s with a similar mushroom in Poland when over a hundred people in a small community suddenly and mysteriously became ill eleven of them died the mushroom that poisoned them produced no symptoms until nearly two weeks after ingestion it's been suggested as a perfect assassins mushroom because you could serve it you know no symptoms at all and then you go away in two weeks later your victim you know falls dead perhaps Roman Empress Agri Pina had the same idea when thinking of a way to get her son on the throne in 54 ad her husband Emperor Claudius reportedly died of mysterious causes after eating a plate of mushrooms but then so did Alexander the first of Russia and Holy Roman Emperor Charles the sixth never eat a mushroom unless is properly identified always be with a mushroom expert always retain samples of your mushrooms so you don't eat all of them another mushroom rarely causes death but is better known for its use as a psychoactive substance Amanita muscaria the famous summer mushroom the red mushroom with the white thoughts that you see associated with Santa Claus and Christmas and fir trees in Siberia there's been a long history of the use of this mushroom by shamans Amanita muscaria contains many compounds but three notable ones are EBU tannic acid Musa Amal and muscarinic muscarine can cause excessive salivation abdominal pain nausea and in rare cases respiratory arrest even death when the shaman ate the mushroom his kidneys filtered the mus grin from his urine their disciples would then drink the urine and we should be free of these negative compounds and then they would have an experience that was a lot more pleasant reindeer also loved these mushrooms according to some legends they may have caused Santa's reindeer to hallucinate and prance around as if they were flying and don't forget the round guy in the suit with a white tux look familiar perhaps not as colorful in appearance this little mushroom is one of several fungi containing another mind-altering substance psilocybin effects of psilocybin or psilocybin containing mushrooms on human beings is dependent upon a dosage but psilocybin does induce a an altered state of consciousness a visionary state for this to occur in the brain psilocybin metabolizes into solisten which has a similar structure is serotonin one natural neurotransmitter affecting our mood the citizen is then able to bind to serotonins receptors exciting nerves as if a massive rush of real serotonin had been released the floodgates that senses are open enormous amounts of information comes in mankind's use of hallucinogenic mushrooms more commonly known today as magic mushrooms can be traced back over 7,000 years through ancient artwork to the Aztec civilization magic mushrooms were center stage at many religious or healing ceremonies then all changed in the 16th century with the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors to the new world the Spaniards condemned the use of plant hallucinogens to the harshest punishments of the Inquisition including execution consequently the use of these compounds by native peoples in the Americas went deeply underground for centuries in May 1957 Life magazine ran an article discussing the contemporary use of psilocybin mushrooms in Mexico some psychology professors took note they were all sort of epicenter dat Harvard at the time when the use of these mushrooms was sort of leaping out of the fabric of knowledge coming from Mexico there was increasing interest within mainstream Psychiatry particularly on investigators to examine the range of effects of a variety of psychedelic compounds including psilocybin by the 1960s the use of psilocybin mushrooms and a compound derived from an organ fungus known as LSD escaped the laboratory and left into the emerging counterculture in 1968 the United States government reacted by making the possession of psilocybin mushrooms illegal however in the last 15 years or so it's been possible to get approval to conduct careful safe tightly controlled structured studies this includes no longer taking psilocybin directly from mushrooms but synthesizing it and federally approved laboratories that can create a more consistent dosage and potency the studies include one by dr. Charles Grove at La biomedical research institute we've been allowed to treat people with advanced stage cancer who have overwhelming existential anxiety and we're treating the anxiety not the cancer per se our observations at this point are quite encouraging mushrooms may have gone to a few people's heads but how did this little mold and its pal the cantaloupe pair up to save millions of lives scientists have identified a 20 foot tall muscle found in Saudi Arabia as an enormous mushroom extinct for 350 million years it was likely the largest organism in the world at the time mold and fungus will return on modern marvels we like to eat some fungi put then again you some fungi like to eat us although mold and fungus spores surround us for the most part they're harmless but given the right conditions some fungi can grow on us and within us sometimes with devastating results the fungus tinea pedis or athlete's foot is one of our most common fungal foes it affects 75 percent of all Americans to some degree with athlete's foot they tend to be present on wet surfaces the fungi then stick to the skin and then start growing and that's why you get athlete's foot where the fungus to survive and thrive on your foot it needs constant moisture often in the form of the sweat between your toes there it primarily consumes dead skin cells and spreads on the epidermal or top layer of skin potentially affecting the entire foot while topical antifungal medicines can normally treat athlete's foot by either killing or inhibiting the fungal growth much deeper fungal infections require more serious treatment doctors at the Los Angeles biomedical research institute are interested in fighting a group of fungi that cause what is commonly referred to as opportunistic fungal infections the main fungus that lives in the human body is members of the genus Canada and it's part of the normal human flora and it's typically found on the skin in the mouth and within our intestinal tract so if something happens to perturb either system or something kills the bacterial flora such as taking antibiotics then the fungus can overthrow if there's a weakened immune system then it can actually cause a more serious infection opportunistic fungal infections emerged just over fifty years ago they've grown along with advances in antibiotics and other medical treatments such as abdominal surgery or chemotherapy that alter the body's natural chemistry and make way for certain fungi to spread through the body Candida actually adheres to and invades the tissue surrounding it the fungus then uses the bloodstream to travel throughout the body commonly infecting areas such as the lungs liver spleen brain thighs and even bone when untreated these infections can cause severe pain fever loss of vision pneumonia even death the biggest challenge for treatment of serious fungal infections is that their cell structure is very similar to the human cell so the name of the game with the fungal infections has been define agents that will kill these complex cells but not cause damage to the human cells ironically the rise and opportunistic fungal infections is due in part to the influence of the most famous and beneficial fungus in history Penicillium in 1939 nearly 12 years after its accidental discovery a group of Oxford scientists including dr. Howard Florey isolated a potent strain of the mold often found on fruits and cheeses it became the first antibiotic penicillin the next challenge producing this new miracle cure on a larger scale Europe was now headed toward the beginning of world war two there was great concern if the work we're done in England would they be invaded would they be bombed or was a safe place the British scientists decided on the United States but before they set off on their trip they rubbed Penicillium mold into their coats in case their freeze-dried samples were confiscated by enemy agents after arriving successfully at the USDA's Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria Illinois they encountered another problem their strain while powerful wasn't powerful enough so various people in Peoria went to the fruit markets looking for old moldy fruit and on one of those pieces of fruit a cantaloupe was a green mold a green mold that looked just like the penicillin that was producing penicillin and so they brought it back to this lab isolated it and that turned out to be a very high producer of penicillin so with this stronger Penicillium strain the researchers ramped up production the rest as they say is history we are talking about millions and millions of people being saved by this drug and in addition it paved the way for looking for other pharmaceuticals from fungi that's the mission of Montana State University plant scientist Gary Strobel who looks for beneficial fungi where few people do deep within plants found in the world's forests over the last 20 years Strobel has traveled to over 80 countries where he and his team have discovered over a thousand punjab there's life all over this planet much of which has gone undiscovered and much of which is in these areas of high diversity these things are gorgeous all colors and shapes and sizes a single tree is likely to contain thousands of different fungi what we're trying to do is to particularly isolate these fungi grow the fungi and see what products they make how successful is Strobel been very he's made breakthrough discoveries in the fields of Medicine environmental cleanup and energy production as a nod to his work the Smithsonian's American history collection now contains the first of his distinctive red caps often used by struggle to collect samples in the field the next step of course is to put all of these in plastic bags load them up and take them back to the laboratory where they're processed we're interested only in the microorganisms the fungi that are living inside and associated with the tissues of the planet will have to surface sterilize the outside and the next step is to dig into the tissues on the stem itself and place those on auger plates and after a few days the hyphy or the threads of the fungus move out onto the auger plate so this is simply an example of going to the forest finding something peculiar and then following up with extreme amount of lab work we just have just untold numbers of these organisms and so it's a huge opportunity for somebody going into science to make a case for studying funshine it's studying fungi may not only save lives but could also solve a global fuel crisis today fungus derived penicillin is used in every country on earth with over a hundred million pounds produced every year that's roughly enough to give 18 doses to everyone in the world mold and fungus will return on modern marvels at the funshine perfect.i facility outside of Olympia Washington bonsai guru Paul Stamets is in the hunt for new ways to utilize the amazing mushroom these are burlap sacks full of wood chips but they're covered with oyster mushroom mycelium and these are used for filtration of water so when surface water runs into storm drains or into rivers then the silt and the coliform bacteria which is a huge problem for the shellfish industry and salmon recovery is captured by the burlap sacks and then the oyster mushroom mycelium gobbles it up the mycelium will eat the bacteria and break down petroleum products diesel oil even a lot of pesticides and actually uses it as a food source also benefits the ecosystem because it feeds the food chains of many other organisms currently Stamets microfiltration mycelium bags are employed at roughly six pilot projects in washington state and british columbia with impressive results in reducing coliform bacteria including Ecoline this is about 2,000 pounds of mycelium oyster mushroom mycelium we create sort of my silly old tsunamis that we generate out of this facility up to ten thousand kilos of mycelium per week this mycelium is sent all over the country for various environmental projects in Big Sky Country clean waste of belgrade montana uses fungi to kill the e.coli bacteria found in human waste aptly named poo powder it's sold as part of a waste bag kit called a wag bag let me kind of show you how that works I inside our waste waste bag kit toilet in a bag are an outer bag an inner bag a hand sanitizer and some toilet paper this is our funnel bag preloaded in the funnel bag is our pre powder the key bacteria killing ingredient and poo powder comes from the fungus buscador elvis giri Strobel spotted it in a cinnamon tree while hunting for fungi in honduras we figured out a way of making it survive and grow in the waste and we add another organism another fungus from the rainforests of peru that bring about the degradation of the waste and these agents together when they are activated by warmth and moisture urine mostly release a gas which kills ecoli naturally in a way that's non-toxic to humans a mixing machine combines these fungi with other earth friendly ingredients that help gel deodorize and catalyze the waste after several minutes out comes poo powder for the waste bag when the person is done using the toilet the bag itself is folded up placed inside the outer bag zip seal close both bags are made in a biodegradable way with starch derivatives so that they're degradable safer than a baby diaper what we were doing this is what we've just done use it seal it and toss it on the day of our visit over 13 million wack-bag kits were shipped to a large military supply depot in Philadelphia Pennsylvania half of our business is the US military and FEMA for emergency and disaster relief we also have a strong presence in the outdoor retail market camping and a very rapidly growing market in health care hospitals nursing homes and home health care scientists at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland Washington are working on another front and fungal studies they hope that Bunga is insatiable appetite we'll be able to convert cellulose to ethanol that's the holy grail of biofuel we're looking at cutting our dependence on foreign petroleum and petroleum in general by using organisms such as Aspergillus Niger and aspergillosis arising and Trichoderma Ricci I to produce enzymes fuels and organic acids that can displace foreign fuels the labs interest in the fungus Trichoderma resi i stems from the fungus history of devouring complex materials trichoderma resi is a fungus that was discovered in the forties breaking down tent canvases in the Pacific Theater during World War two well the reason it could do that is was it was digesting the cellulose and over the years people have developed strains of trichoderma resi I that produce those cellulases those enzymes that speed up the reactions of breaking down cellulose into simple sugars and once you've got sugar it's easy to convert it to ethanol the next challenge for the lab will be to find a way to produce the enzymes and fuel efficiently on a large scale gary Strobel looks for fuel in another fungus this fungus called c-13 and the product that it's making is Michel diesel a new term it's not biodiesel biodiesel are oils and fatty substances from higher plants this is actually diesel this fungus is making many of the ingredients in diesel fuel and it's being made in a quantity that possibly could be commercially feasible when I saw the data I think every hair on my body including these stood straight up the day when you fill up your car with bungy fuel may not be that far off into the future so maybe we'll start a company called strobe oil whether you view them as Friend or Foe bunch I have been on earth for billions of years and will likely be here long after we're gone so perhaps it's time to embrace our fungal future after all they're waiting for us ultimately each of us will become part fungus when we die you

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