DNA Structure – GCSE science, Biology (9-1)

DNA Structure – GCSE science, Biology (9-1)


– Hello, we’re talking
about genetics in this video and particularly about
DNA, the structure of DNA. So we all have cells in our body, nearly all of them have nucleuses, only the red blood cells don’t, and within the nucleus there
are normally 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs of chromosomes. Within each chromosome is DNA and that’s our genetic code
as we normally talk about it, and that’s the focus of this video. So our DNA essentially controls for the production of amino acids, which then in turn are
assembled to form proteins. The DNA is famously this
double helix structure, it’s this sort of spiral
containing all these base pairs. So sections of the DNA are known as genes and those genes contain
pairs, groups of nucleotides, which are basically a
phosphate and sugar group, common phosphate and sugar group with different bases attached and it’s those bases that become our code. So bases can be either
A and T, or C and G. They always pair up in this way and there’s a reason for that, which is if you unzipped this
spiral and took it apart, if you know you’ve got T on one side, then it can duplicate
the A that pairs with it so this is how DNA pairs up,
the pairs are predictable. This is how DNA duplicates. Anyway, these sort of base pairs are normally joined by
weak hydrogen bonds, they’re easily separated to reproduce and in sets of three, they
code for specific amino acids so these are called Base Triplets. Sets of three at a time,
code for your amino acids, those are assembled to form proteins and that’s how your DNA essentially codes for production of proteins. Hope that was a helpful
summary, thanks for watching.

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