Genetics || Part 1

Genetics || Part 1


Hi! Welcome to GLAD Science where we’re always
GLAD to see you! I’m Sakshi and in this video, I’ll be going
over genetics. One of the first things you should know about
genetics is that the father of modern genetics is Gregor Mendel. He bred green peas to study heredity. His work led to the creation of three laws:
the law of dominance, the law of segregation, and the law of independent assortment. The law of dominance states that when two
homozygous or pure organisms for opposite traits are crossed, the offspring will all
be hybrids, meaning that they will carry two different alleles. The law of segregation states that during the formation
of gametes, or sex cells, the two traits carried by each parent separate. The law of independent assortment states that
in hybrid individuals, traits for different characteristics are on separate chromosomes. That means that the gene for height for example
will not be inherited along with the gene for skin color. Now that you know all of the laws, let’s talk
about monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. A monohybrid cross is defined as a cross between
two hybrid organisms. For any cross, you should know that the phenotype
is what the organism looks like and the genotype is the type of gene. Here is an example of a monohybrid cross: A dihybrid cross is defined as a cross between
individuals that are hybrid for two traits. Here is an example of a dihybrid cross: Finally, you
should know the difference between co-dominance and incomplete dominance. Co-dominance refers to the fact when two traits
are both expressed. Incomplete dominance refers to “blending”
of traits. An example of co-dominance would be when a
red flower is crossed with a white flower and their offspring is a flower with white
and red spots, while an example of incomplete dominance would be a white flower and a red
flower having a pink offspring. That’s all of the time I have for today, but
stay tuned for part two of genetics in which I cover test-crosses, multiple alleles, polygenic
inheritance, and mutations. Thank you for watching and I am always glad
to be of help.

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