Genetics Part 2: Sex-Linked and Line Bred Traits

Genetics Part 2: Sex-Linked and Line Bred Traits

before we start the video I would just like to thank today's sponsor the amino app this is a free mobile app that connects people from around the world based on their interests so naturally I joined their reptile groups and the first thing I was impressed with was how welcoming the community was if you have questions about your reptiles you can post about them or even post a poll to get other people's opinions on what they would recommend the amino app also has forums and chat groups about specific types of reptiles that you can participate in my favorite part however about the amino app would be their quizzes you can quiz yourself to see if you can identify snakes as quickly as possible and then rate your scores against others I almost hit coral snake there it's a really fun way to test your knowledge and learn more about reptiles and amphibians in a fun and engaging way hey everyone in part one of our genetics video we discussed recessive dominant and Co dominant genes and how they work with reptiles and today for part two I'll be discussing more advanced genetic traits with reptiles including line bred traits sex-linked traits and what pH means in terms of reptile genetics before continuing make sure you watch part 1 of my genetics video because that's kind of a prerequisite for today's video if you watch today's without watching part one it's gonna be a little confusing if you're still here I'm going to assume that you have watched part one and will continue first I want to clarify something that I should have clarified in part one when I use my fingers to represent the alleles the fingers I guess are really representing chromosomes because the allele is a patch of genetic material found on the chromosome so when I say allele I'm actually referring to that small genetic patch along one of the chromosomes not the actual chromosomes themselves let's start with line bred traits these are traits that show a physical characteristic in the snake that somebody wants to replicate with its offspring but the trait itself cannot be predicted it shows up randomly in the babies or in the offspring and it doesn't act like a dominant recessive or a co dominant morph as a result you can't really breed specifically for it and know exactly what you're going to get in the babies you just have to breed the snake and hope for the best you can however increase your chance of getting babies with that genetic trait by breeding a parent back to a sibling or another parent or someone in that same family line hoping that somewhere in that snakes family tree another one of its family members also carries that genetic trait as a result line breeding is really just another form of saying inbreeding inbreeding although it's not recommended has been shown with reptiles not to produce as many side effects as it does with mammals birds and other animals inbreeding or line breeding is generally accepted for the first couple of generations with snakes because it doesn't often show side effects like it does with those other animals if you think about it with purebred dogs lion breeding happens all the time just to get those specific characteristics that the breeders want in their show quality dogs as you may have already determined line breeding gets its name from breeding snakes along the same family line one example of a line bred trait with snakes is the twin spot hognose snake in twin spots the dorsal spot is replaced by two smaller spots along the back of the snake and it makes the snake look like it has more spots so it's kind of a desired trait with some snakes but again it's something you can't predict exactly when you breed a twin spot to another twin spot or even to another family member doing so just increases your chances of getting of more twin spots so with our twin spot hognose we have a twin spot albino hognose snake we could breed her with a sibling to increase those chances of getting more twin spots but we don't have access to a sibling of hers that is also a twin spot or really a sibling of hers at all so we are going to be doing what's called selective breeding and we will be selectively breeding her with another twin spot of a different family line selective breeding is not necessarily line breeding because selective breeding is just when you choose which snakes are going to breed with each other they don't have that natural choice of their own like they would in the wild so all of captive breeding efforts are pretty much selective breeding next let's talk about sex linked traits these are genetic mutations that are not found on just any chromosome they're found on the sex chromosome itself so if they're found on the X chromosome in humans that would be an x-linked trait if they're found on the Y chromosome then it would be a Y linked mutation or y-linked traits similarly in reptiles which have sex chromosomes Z and W instead of x and y if it's found on the z it's the z link straight if on the W it's a W linked tree there have not been any proven sex-linked traits and reptiles however but because of the amount of breeding in captivity that's going on it's inevitable that eventually there will probably be a sex-linked trait proven in the future so today we're going to use a commonly seen sex-linked trait in humans the colorblindness genetic mutation this is a recessive x-linked trait because it's found on the X chromosome and the individual needs to have all of their X chromosomes with that mutation or in order to express it because of this males with the sex chromosomes of x and y only need one copy of this mutation whereas females need both of their X chromosomes to be mutated to represent a mutated sex chromosome I'm not going to be using my fingers in the next example like I did in genetics part one instead just kind of follow what the letters say on the screen we're gonna use a little C next to the X chromosome if that chromosome hypothetically has the genetic mutation of colorblindness to better understand how this works let's say a man who is colorblind so his X chromosome has that genetic mutation has a kid with a woman who is completely normal she does not carry the colorblind gene at all their offspring there's a couple different options of what their offspring could be the woman is going to contribute her X chromosome and it doesn't matter which one she contributes to the child it's a 50/50 chance regardless but it doesn't matter because they're both normal x chromosomes however the father could contribute either his Y chromosome which is completely normal which would result in a male offspring who is not colorblind at all or he could contribute his mutated x chromosome to the offspring which would result in a female that carries the colorblind gene but since it's a recessive trait she will not be colored Y herself now let's say that offspring which sounds funny cuz referring to people but it's a reptile Channel so that's what we say in the reptile world let's say she grows up and she breeds with a normal male that does not carry the colorblind chain he is going to either contribute his normal X chromosome to the young or his Y chromosome to the young they're both normal they're just going to determine the sex basically and the female is going to contribute either her normal X chromosome to the young which could result in a normal male or a normal female either way both of those sex chromosomes will be normal and non mutated so whether it's a male or female determined by the dad the young will not be colorblind or that female could contribute her x chromosome with the colorblind mutation into the offspring now with the offspring having one x chromosome that is mutated for colorblindness the dead could either contribute his x chromosome to the young which is normal so the baby would again just be a female that carries the colorblind gene or he could contribute that Y chromosome to the young which would result in a male that is colorblind because it's a recessive trait and all of that offsprings X chromosomes are mutated this is why we see colorblindness more often in males than females because males only need one of their sex chromosomes to be mutated whereas females need both of their sex chromosomes to be mutated in order to be colorblind therefore in order to get a colorblind female the dad has to be colorblind and the mom has to either be a carrier of the colorblind mutation or she has to be colorblind too again in reptiles there have been no proven sex-linked traits I actually made this video yesterday and uploaded it using the banana morph as a sex-linked trait because I did some research and what I read said that that was a sex-linked trait but it was old information so I want to thank the viewers and the commenters for making me aware that the banana mutation is not a good example of a sex-linked trait which is why we re filmed this section of the video because I don't want to send anyone down the wrong hole when it comes to learning snake genetics but I still wanted to teach you guys how sex-linked traits work after doing my research we determined that yes the banana morph is in fact codominant trait the reason why reptile breeders called a banana mutation a sex-linked trait is because if you have a male banana ball python and it was hatched with its mother being a banana then that male will be more likely to throw female banana offspring with the normal as being mostly males those ball pythons that throw mostly female bananas are typically called female makers whereas if you have a male banana morph ball python with its dad being a banana morph then that will be considered a male maker because most of its banana offspring will be males and most of the normal offspring from that male banana will be females although we do have a friend who bought a couple of male maker banana ball pythons and they threw mostly females so there's still a lot of questions in the air how exactly this morph works hopefully in the future and I'm sure in the future we will understand and pinpoint exactly how the banana morph works so that we can predict how it's going to work in the future with their offspring by the way the banana morph in ball pythons is also referred to as the coral glow morph there's some controversy on whether or not it's the same thing basically two breeders imported ball pythons from the wild that had this genetic mutation one breeder called it the banana morph and the other breeder called it the coral glow coral glow morph it was within a couple of years of each other so they kind of came to the market at the same time when those snakes were old enough to breed and then those babies were up for sale the breeders have done a lot of research on both of these morphs and they both act very similarly they both kind of create the male maker's versus female makers they just act very similar so a lot of people will say that they are in fact the same thing but a lot of people are on the other side of the fence and they say they are separate morphs only time will tell maybe when we can do some more DNA sequencing studies or some more breeding studies with these two morphs before we can determine once and for all if they are the same thing or if they are separate general consensus right now is that they are the same thing they just go by two different names finally let's end today's video about genetics by talking about what pH means in terms of snake genetics the pH stands for possibly het and it's the percentage that that snake is het for a specific trait this really only applies to recessive traits because if a snake is het for a dominant or a co dominant gene it's going to express that visually however snakes can hide a recessive trait without showing any physical difference to understand how possible hits work and how you can get an exact percentage to the chance that that snake is het for a specific recessive gene let's hypothetically breed a normal hognose snake to a het albino hognose snake the sexes doesn't matter because this is an out of sex-linked trait this parent could either contribute this allele or this allele they're both normal so it doesn't really matter but this is the parent that determines if the baby is going to be hit for albino or not this parent could contribute this normal allele to the baby and it would be a completely normal mutation normal baby or it could contribute the albino mutated allele to the baby which would result in a het albino baby snake since this is a 50-50 chance the baby has a 50/50 chance of being hit for albino or not so that's where we get the 50% possibly het albino snakes now to see how closely you've been listening I have a quiz for you let's say we breed a het albino hognose snake to another het albino hognose snake they both look normal but they carry the albino gene we know based on what we learned earlier that 1/4 of those babies will be albino that means that three-quarters of the babies will look normal but some of them will still be het so my question for you is if you were a breeder of those two snakes what would you label the normal-looking babies as including their possible heads let me know in the comments below pause the video if you have to in order to do your math and maybe do a Punnett square if you need to and I will tell you the answer at the end of the credits of this video while you're working on that I hope you enjoyed today's video of line bred traits sex-linked traits and how possible hetz worked thanks for watching and learning with me and we'll see you next time now it's time for the answer to the quiz since a quarter of the babies are out of the question since they would be albinos that leaves us with three-quarters of the babies that look normal two options for these babies would be het albino and one option would be completely normal snakes so that gives us a 66% chance of the babies being het albino and a 33% chance of those remaining babies being completely normal in other words you have a 66% chance of reaching into a bin of the normal-looking babies of this clutch and pulling out a head albino baby and a 33% chance of reaching into that bin and pulling out a completely normal baby now that that's all said and done ed and I got on the discussion of Harry Potter and the chances of carrying the magical gene and what that would be we're pretty sure it's a line bred trait because someone was if someone can be born which our wizard with muggle parents right so neither parent has to have a trait in order for a baby to have it to be magical but you do like the Malfoy's which were line bred are inbred to the point where they had pure magical wines in their family so Malfoy's are aligned bred trait no they would be they just be naturally find each other but some wizards go with non Wizarding parents mm-hmm that's true so you can have a wizard and a non-return on which still have a baby that's a muggles or an on match either non magical or magical or they could have all magical you just can't predict it really you just have a better chance maybe unless I don't know if that's been proven in the Wizarding World all even to wizards breeding yeah a squib mmm-hmm they can be produced by Wizarding or magical parents it's a line bred trade mm-hmm

21 thoughts on “Genetics Part 2: Sex-Linked and Line Bred Traits”

  1. For the hairy potter id guess line bred or recessive. Or maybe unlikely that it was a recessive trait and could mutate back not uncommonly?

  2. Oki for the quiz at the end…
    1/4 of the babies would be albino
    3/4 of the babies would look normal
    1/2 of the babies would be het albino
    1/4 of the babies would be homozygous normal

  3. 25% would be homozygous albino and 75% will be normal, but 25% will be homozygous normal and 50% will be hetrozygous normal.

  4. I love this channel, but line breeding does NOT happen all of the time to get traits. The only place you are ever going to see that is in breeders that are not responsible, or a breed that is dying out. You don't have to line breed to create traits for show dogs because the traits are already set.

  5. Rita, our Mexican Black (Queen) Snake is 16.25 inches going on 18. Her genetic makeup: 10% Cuddles, 2% Snake Yawns, 5% Tunneling Ninja, 2% Climb all the Things, 1% Will Musk-a-Motherfucker and a whopping 80% Pinkie Hunting Master.

  6. To continue your harry potter magical blood theory, two magicals breeding would cause a squib like you say but that squib then often goes to breed with muggles, it is then later down the line (how late is random) the magical blood can pop back up again and they would become a witch or wizard, which is what would have happened to Hermione and Harry's mum (I believe), both her parents were muggles but for it to be possible for her to be magical there would have had to me some magic in her family at some point.
    So yes, it is 100% without a doubt a line bred trait. Where it started we will never know, it's just like reality and humans, we will never know the origin Haha

  7. Correct me if I am wrong but here I go.
    Possibility #1 – 2 recessive albino alleles = 25% albino offspring
    Possibility #2 – 2 normal alleles = 25% normal offspring
    Possibility #3 &# 4 – 1 recessive & 1 normal allele = 50% het albino offspring
    This is based off calculations including the total amount of offspring

    After watching the ending the math is the same just different calculations I believe; Because 66% of the 75% offspring being het is equivalent to 2/3rds, that equal 50% of the total 100% of offpring. The remaining 33% is 1/3rd of 75% offspring being normal which is equal to 25% of the total 100% of offspring.

  8. love that you are wearing green and talking about Harry Potter. Slytherin….I would never have guessed that of you and Ed. 😉

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