Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy Part 3 – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy Part 3 – 3D Anatomy Tutorial


So in terms of the blood supply to the ovaries,
the arterial supply is via the ovarian arteries, and the venous drainage is via the ovarian
veins. So the ovarian arteries arise just below the level of the renal arteries on the
abdominal aorta on either side. So remember the renal arteries lie at the vertebral level
L1, so the ovarian arteries arise just below the renal arteries. And then in term of the
venous drainage, the left ovarian vein drains into the left renal vein, whereas on the right
side of the body, the right ovarian vein drains into the inferior vena cava. So remember that
these ovarian vessels actually pass to the superior pole of the ovary via the suspensory
ligament, or the infundibulopelvic ligament. So moving on to the uterus, we’re now looking
at it from this lateral cross-sectional view. In the last tutorial, I introduced you to
the various parts of the uterus, including the fundus, the body and the cervix, and I
mentioned it had this flexion over the bladder which we can see here, but what I didn’t introduce
you to, was the different axes of the uterus. So at the level of the internal os, you can
see that the body of the uterus is angled forward, at an angle of around 130 degrees.
So the axis of the uterine body lies at a 125 degree angle to the axis of the cervix,
and this degree of angulation is called anteflexion. And then the degree of angulation you get
with the axis of the cervix, to the axis of the vagina, is called anteversion. So normally
this is around about 90 degrees of flexion, so it’s not shown as sharply angulated in
this model here. So you’ve got anteflexion which is the axis of the uterine body to the
cervix, and then you’ve got anteversion which is the angle formed by the axis of the cervix
to the vagina. So just coming over to one of my diagrams again, we’re looking at a poorly
drawn sagittal section of the pelvis. So anteriorly you’ve got the pubic symphysis and the pelvic
bone, and you’ve got the bladder in orange, and the rectum posteriorly in brown. So just
to illustrate some of the positions that the uterus can take. So the normal position is,
if I just draw on the vagina here, and then you’ve got anteversion of the cervix in relation
to the vagina, and you’ve got anteflexion of the uterine body. So that’s the normal,
most common position of the uterus, and then another position of the uterus can be to have
the anteversion and retroflexion of the uterus. Or you can also get retroversion, and anteflexion,
or you can get retroversion and retroflexion. So those are some possible positions of the
uterus. So in terms of the blood supply of the uterus, it’s supplied by the uterine artery.
So If I just rotate the model slightly to the side, you can see this artery running
along the length of the uterus, so this is the uterine artery and it arises usually from
the anterior division of the internal iliac artery, and this artery actually runs in the
base of the broad ligament, and if you remember that I mentioned before, the uterine artery
crosses above the ureter. So remember that mnemonic “water under the bridge” to remember
this anatomical relationship. So you can see the ureters running underneath the uterine
artery to enter posteriorly into the bladder. So as it ascends along the uterus, it forms
anastomoses with the ovarian arteries, which you can see above. And it also gives off descending
branches, which supply the upper vagina and the cervix. So venous drainage of the uterus
corresponds to the arteries, so these veins drain to the internal iliac veins, and there’s
communication between veins that come from the vagina and veins that come from the bladder
as well, via a venous plexus. So in terms of the arterial supply to the vagina, the
arterial supply is from branches of the internal iliac artery. So you’ve got various branches
such as the vaginal branches, the uterine branches (which I mentioned) and then you’ve
got the rectal branches – the middle rectal branches, and branches of the internal pudendal
artery which supply the vagina. And venous drainage is via the venous plexuses which
drain into the internal iliac vein via the vaginal veins. So now you should have an understanding
of the blood supply to the organs which make up the female reproductive system and also
have an idea of the different axes and different positions that the uterus can take.

23 thoughts on “Introduction to Female Reproductive Anatomy Part 3 – 3D Anatomy Tutorial”

  1. That's great! If you do manage to watch a few of these new tutorials on the reproductive system, it would be great if you could head over to my website to fill out a feedback form on how you've found them (only 7 questions – should take no more than 45 seconds!). It's the first time I've made clinical anatomy tutorials, and the feedback would be really helpful. Hope you enjoy ๐Ÿ™‚

  2. Thanks so much for your clear tutorials on the pelvic floor.ย  They are very very useful to me!ย  Great and generous work!

  3. Very informative presentation, but in the drowings starting at about 3:45 minutes of the presentation we can see the ureter passing above the uterine vessles. This is not the actual course of the ureter which in fact passes below these vessles.

  4. why are the ureters entering the bladder at the top? It is supposed to enter at the base if I remember.

  5. Thank you so much for all your videos. I really struggle with anatomy textbooks because I am an audio-visual learner and your videos have helped me pass second year medicine – with my last anatomy exam tomorrow on reproductive anatomy. Thanks again!

  6. Renal artery lies between L1 and L2. They vary from cadaver to cadaver… but most literature agrees the renal arteries are closer to L2. so if you have to choose between the two, L2 appears to be the best answer

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