PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode February 22, 2020


>>Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION FOR SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 22: VOTERS TURN OUT FOR TODAY’S DEMOCRATIC CAUCUSES IN NEVADA; AND, IN OUR SIGNATURE SEGMENT, THE FIRST IN OUR SERIES OF STORIES FROM INDIA WITH A LOOK AT EXCLUSIONARY CITIZENSHIP LAWS THAT ARE LEAVING SOME IN LIMBO. NEXT, ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.FROM THE TISCH WNET STUDIOS ATLINCOLN CENTER IN NEW YORK,HARI SREENIVASAN.>>Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING, AND THANKS FOR JOINING US. THE NEVADA DEMOCRATIC CAUCUSES GOT UNDER WAY TODAY, THE THIRD CONTEST IN THE PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION PROCESS. AS OF 5:15 P.M. EASTERN TIME, WITH JUST OVER 2% OF THE PRECINCTS REPORTING, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS SHOWED SENATOR BERNIE SANDERS LEADING WITH MORE THAN 54% OF THE VOTE, FOLLOWED BY FORMER VICE PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN WITH JUST OVER 21%, AND BILLIONAIRE BUSINESSMAN TOM STEYER WITH ABOUT 9%. AT SITES THROUGHOUT THE STATE, REGISTERED DEMOCRATS LINED UP IN PERSON THIS AFTERNOON. THEIR CHOICES WILL BE COMBINED WITH MORE THAN 70,000 EARLY VOTERS WHO CAST PAPER BALLOTS WITH THEIR TOP THREE TO FIVE CANDIDATES. LAST NIGHT, PRESIDENT TRUMP HELD A RALLY IN LAS VEGAS, BUT THE NEVADA REPUBLICAN PARTY CANCELED ITS CAUCUSES THIS YEAR, CHOOSING TO GIVE ALL ITS DELEGATES TO THE PRESIDENT. JOINING ME NOW FROM LAS VEGAS IS JOE SCHOENMANN, NEWS DIRECTOR AND HOST FOR NEVADA PUBLIC RADIO. JOE, AS I LOOK AT THE NEWSHOUR WEBSITE, THIS IS REALLY EARLY IN THE NIGHT, 2.38% REPORTING. AND SO, REGARDLESS OF WHO HAS THE LEAD NOW, WHEN DO THE BULK OF THE VOTES FROM, SAY, CLARK COUNTY, WHERE LAS VEGAS IS, COME IN?>>PROBABLY IN ABOUT ANOTHER HOUR AND A HALF, MAYBE TWO HOURS, WE’LL SEE A LOT MORE. THE VOTE COUNT HERE THAT WE’VE SEEN WAS JUST UPDATED TO ABOUT 5%. BERNIE SANDERS HAS MORE THAN A DOUBLE DIGIT LEAD OVER SECOND PLACE, JOE BIDEN, AND PETE BUTTIGIEG IS VERY CLOSE TO BIDEN RIGHT NOW. SO FIRST, SECOND AND THIRD, AGAIN, WITH ONLY 5% OF THE VOTE, LOOK LIKE SANDERS, BIDEN AND BUTTIGIEG.>>Sreenivasan: ANY IDEA ON HOW THIS BREAKS DOWN? SO MUCH HAS BEEN MADE ABOUT, THIS IS THE FIRST REALLY DIVERSE TEST FOR THESE CANDIDATES. ANY IDEA HOW THESE VOTES ARE BREAKING IN DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES?>>IT, YEAH, IT– THERE IS SOME BREAKDOWN. IN THE HENDERSON AREA, WHICH IS A SUBURB OF LAS VEGAS, WHICH IS NOT AS DIVERSE AS THE CORE, A LOT– THE– JOE BIDEN IS GETTING A LOT MORE VOTES. CULINARY UNION MEMBERS, SURPRISINGLY TO SOME, ARE, SEEM TO BE COMING OUT IN FAVOR OF SANDERS. AND THAT’S A SURPRISE TO SOME BECAUSE THE CULINARY HAD COME OUT, WHICH HAS 60,000 MEMBERS, HAD COME OUT IN THE LAST COUPLE OF MONTHS, SAYING THEY DIDN’T NECESSARILY LIKE SANDERS’ PROPOSAL OF MEDICARE FOR ALL BECAUSE IT MIGHT TAKE AWAY FROM THEIR OWN HEALTH INSURANCE PLAN. WHAT WAS SURPRISING IS, I LIVE IN A NEIGHBORHOOD WHICH IS LARGELY HISPANIC, MANY CULINARY WORKERS. WHEN I WOKE UP THIS MORNING AFTER SANDERS HAD A RALLY LAST NIGHT, I WAS SURPRISED TO SEE FIVE TO 10 SANDERS SIGNS IN THE YARDS OF HOMES ALL AROUND MY HOUSE, WHICH I’D NEVER SEEN ANYTHING LIKE THAT BEFORE.>>Sreenivasan: OKAY. WE ARE STILL CHATTING EARLY IN THE EVENING. ANY REPORTS OF ANY PROBLEMS SO FAR? THIS IS ONE OF THE THINGS THAT PEOPLE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT AFTER IOWA.>>ONE OF OUR REPORTERS WAS ON THE STRIP AT THE REAL AND THE BELLAGIO, AND HE SAID HE WAS SURPRISED. IT WAS LIKE CLOCKWORK, VERY SMOOTH. SO, NO PROBLEMS SO FAR.>>Sreenivasan: ANY IDEA HOW LATE THIS IS GOING TO GO? I MEAN, BEST CASE SCENARIO, THE, THE LOCAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY HAS SAID THAT THEY ARE NOT EXPECTED TO FINISH EVERYTHING TONIGHT AND HAVE FULL RESULTS, RIGHT?>>YEAH. YOU KNOW, I WOULD SAY THAT IS PROBABLY A GOOD BET IF THEY’RE ACTUALLY SAYING THAT. THERE WERE EXPECTATIONS– EARLY ON, THE PARTY WAS SAYING THEY THOUGHT MAYBE IT’D BE WRAPPED UP EARLY IN THE AFTERNOON. BUT FROM THOSE WHO’VE WATCHED CAUCUSES IN PREVIOUS YEARS, THIS GOES ON INTO LATE IN THE EVENING. I THINK IT WILL BE WRAPPED UP BY 5:00 OR 6:00. BUT AS I SAID, THE CAUCUS IS A STRANGE ANIMAL. IT’S NOT LIKE A PRIMARY. IT’S VERY DIFFERENT. AND THE COUNTING IS, IT ISN’T JUST A STRAIGHTFORWARD COUNT. THERE ARE ALIGNMENTS, REALIGNMENTS. IT’S, IT’S A DIFFERENT, DIFFERENT BEAST.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT. JOE SCHOENMANN, THE NEWS DIRECTOR AND HOST FOR NEVADA PUBLIC RADIO, JOINING US VIA SKYPE TONIGHT. THANKS SO MUCH, JOE.>>THANK YOU.>>Sreenivasan: AND YOU CAN SEE ALL THE REAL-TIME UPDATES TO THE VOTES THAT ARE COMING IN IN NEVADA ON THE FRONT OF THE NEWSHOUR WEB SITE.>>Sreenivasan: IN AFGHANISTAN, THE WEEKLONG SO-CALLED “REDUCTION IN VIOLENCE” AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE U.S. AND THE TALIBAN BEGAN AT MIDNIGHT LAST NIGHT. THE TRUCE CALLS FOR THE TALIBAN TO END ROADSIDE BOMBINGS, SUICIDE ATTACKS, AND ROCKET STRIKES AGAINST AFGHAN OR U.S. FORCES. U.S. OFFICIALS SAY ANY ATTACKS DURING THE TRUCE WILL BE INVESTIGATED, TO DETERMINE IF THE TALIBAN WAS INVOLVED. IF SUCCESSFUL, A PEACE ACCORD COULD BE SIGNED AS SOON AS FEBRUARY 29. ALSO TODAY, THE UNITED NATIONS RELEASED A REPORT SHOWING THAT MORE THAN 100,000 CIVILIANS HAVE BEEN KILLED OR INJURED DURING FIGHTING IN AFGHANISTAN OVER THE PAST TEN YEARS. A TEAM OF EXPERTS FROM THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION IS EN ROUTE TO WUHAN, CHINA, TODAY, THE EPICENTER OF THE CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK. IN SOUTH KOREA, THE COUNTRY WITH THE SECOND-MOST CORONAVIRUS CASES, AUTHORITIES ANNOUNCED AN EIGHT-FOLD INCREASE IN THE PAST FOUR DAYS, BRINGING THE TOTAL THERE TO 433 CASES. IN IRAN, AUTHORITIES REPORTED A FIFTH DEATH FROM THE VIRUS. 28 CASES HAVE BEEN CONFIRMED THERE SO FAR. AND IN NORTHERN ITALY, A DOZEN TOWNS ARE ON LOCKDOWN AFTER TWO PEOPLE DIED AND MORE THAN 50 ARE CONFIRMED TO HAVE THE VIRUS. FORMER REBEL LEADER RIEK MACHAR BECAME SOUTH SUDAN’S VICE PRESIDENT TODAY, AS PART OF A NEW COALITION GOVERNMENT. PRESIDENT SALVA KIIR CALLED THE POWER-SHARING AGREEMENT THE OFFICIAL END OF THE CIVIL WAR BETWEEN HIS SUPPORTERS AND THOSE OF MACHAR THAT BEGAN IN 2013. THIS IS THE THIRD ATTEMPT BY THE TWO LEADERS TO FORM A COALITION GOVERNMENT WHILE UNDER HEAVY INTERNATIONAL PRESSURE. THE CIVIL WAR IN SOUTH SUDAN, THE WORLD’S YOUNGEST COUNTRY, KILLED AT LEAST 400,000 PEOPLE. NASA RELEASED IMAGES YESTERDAY SHOWING THE EFFECTS OF THE HOTTEST TEMPERATURE ON RECORD IN ANTARCTICA. SATELLITE IMAGES FROM FEBRUARY 4 AND FEBRUARY 13 SHOW THE BEFORE- AND-AFTER MELTING OF THE ICE CAP ON EAGLE ISLAND. ON FEBRUARY 6, JUST TWO DAYS AFTER THE FIRST IMAGE WAS TAKEN, WEATHER STATIONS RECORDED A TEMPERATURE OF 64.9 DEGREES AT THE NORTHERN TIP OF THE ANTARCTIC PENINSULA– ABOUT THE SAME TEMPERATURE AS LOS ANGELES THAT DAY. NASA ESTIMATES THAT DURING THAT PERIOD, FOUR INCHES OF SNOWPACK ON EAGLE ISLAND MELTED.>>Sreenivasan: BOTH TODAY’S NEVADA CAUCUSES AND NEXT WEEK’S PRIMARY IN SOUTH CAROLINA ARE BRINGING THE MOST DIVERSE ELECTORATE TO THE POLLS SO FAR. MEANWHILE, WHEN IT COMES TO GENDER IN THEIR OWN STATE HOUSES, THERE ARE STARK DIVIDES. BUT, THAT COULD BE CHANGING. I RECENTLY SPOKE WITH CAPRI CAFARO, A FORMER OHIO STATE SENATOR WHO IS CURRENTLY AN EXECUTIVE IN RESIDENCE AT AMERICAN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. FIRST, LET’S TALK A LITTLE BIT ABOUT NEVADA. HOW IMPORTANT IS GENDER, IN THE POLITICAL CONTEXT OF A STATE WHERE ALMOST HALF THE LEGISLATURE ARE WOMEN?>>ACTUALLY, ABOUT 52% OF NEVADA STATE LEGISLATURE, MAKING THEM THE FIRST IN THE COUNTRY TO HAVE A FEMALE MAJORITY STATE HOUSE. SO, CERTAINLY, NEVADA HAS PROVEN TO BE A LEADER WHEN IT COMES TO GENDER EQUITY, GENDER PARITY. AND THEIR, THE ELECTORATE’S WILLINGNESS TO VOTE FOR FEMALE CANDIDATES– THEY EVEN HAVE TWO FEMALE UNITED STATES SENATORS. SO, OBVIOUSLY, IF THE– IF HISTORY– IF PAST IS PROLOGUE, GENDER PLAYS A VERY CRITICAL ROLE IN NEVADA.>>Sreenivasan: WHAT IS THE SECRET TO NEVADA’S SUCCESS IN ACHIEVING THIS SORT OF GENDER PARITY IN THE LEGISLATURE?>>A LOT OF IT HAS TO DO WITH CANDIDATE RECRUITMENT, AND THE FACT THAT TRADITIONALLY, OR HISTORICALLY, WESTERN STATES ACTUALLY DO HAVE A HIGHER NUMBER OF WOMEN THAT BOTH RUN AND SUCCEED IN HIGHER OFFICE THERE. I ALSO THINK THAT IT’S POSSIBLE, PARTICULARLY IN NEVADA, WITH A VERY LARGE, PROMINENT AND POWERFUL LABOR UNION PRESENCE OUT THERE. SO THESE KIND OF SERVICE INDUSTRY UNIONS OFTENTIMES DO INVEST A LOT IN RECRUITMENT RETENTION OF WOMEN CANDIDATES, ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY.>>Sreenivasan: SO THEY’RE ABLE TO HELP IN THE PIPELINE AND ACTUALLY ENCOURAGE MORE WOMEN TO GET INTO POLITICS.>>THAT’S RIGHT. THAT’S RIGHT. GET IN IT AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, AND THE STATE LEVEL. THE FACT THAT YOU HAVE SUCH A BIG PRESENCE OF WOMEN IN A NEVADA LEGISLATURE CREATES A CIRCUMSTANCE WHEREBY YOU HAVE TWO UNITED STATES SENATORS THAT ARE FEMALE IN A PLACE LIKE NEVADA.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT, LET’S TURN THE PAGE A LITTLE BIT. SOUTH CAROLINA, ALMOST THE INVERSE OF THE SITUATION IN NEVADA. NOW, I SHOULD POINT OUT, NIKKI HALEY–>>NIKKI HALEY.>>Sreenivasan: WAS THE GOVERNOR OF THAT STATE, RIGHT? SO IT’S NOT THAT THEY HAVE BEEN COMPLETELY OUT OF IT, BUT…>>THAT’S RIGHT.>>Sreenivasan: HOW DOES THAT LEGISLATURE FARE?>>VERY DIFFERENT FROM WHAT WE SEE IN NEVADA, WHERE SOUTH CAROLINA HAS ABOUT, A LITTLE LESS THAN 16% OF THEIR STATE LEGISLATURE IS FEMALE. THEY HAVE NO WOMEN REPRESENTING THEM AT THE FEDERAL LEVEL, EITHER. YOU DID MENTION FORMER GOVERNOR NIKKI HALEY, SO IT IS NOT WITHOUT FEMALE PRESENCE. BUT THERE IS ABSOLUTELY AN ABSENCE OF FEMALE REPRESENTATION WITHIN THEIR FEDERAL DELEGATION, AND A VERY SMALL NUMBER OF WOMEN SERVING AT THE STATE LEVEL, VERY SIMILAR TO PLACES LIKE TENNESSEE, ALABAMA, WEST VIRGINIA, MISSISSIPPI. SO AGAIN, NOT OUT OF THE NORM IN A NUMBER OF SOUTHERN STATES.>>Sreenivasan: HOW MUCH OF THIS HAS TO DO WITH PARTIES AND THEIR ABILITY TO RECRUIT? I MEAN, IS THERE A STRONGER RECRUITMENT PIPELINE WHEN IT COMES TO, SAY, LABOR UNIONS IN NEVADA VERSUS WHAT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY IS DOING AND HOW THEY’RE ENCOURAGING WOMEN TO GET IN ON THE GROUND FLOOR?>>RIGHT, WELL, THERE ALWAYS HAS BEEN IS A HISTORIC DISPARITY BETWEEN WOMEN RUNNING AS DEMOCRATS VERSUS WOMEN RUNNING AS REPUBLICANS. YOU KNOW, THERE WERE SUCH HIGH VOLUMES OF WOMEN RUNNING ON DEMOCRATIC TICKETS THAT THAT ALSO RESULTED IN WOMEN INCREASING THEIR NUMBERS IN CONGRESS IN THE MIDTERM ELECTIONS. BECAUSE OF THAT, REPUBLICANS ARE STEPPING UP THEIR GAME IN CANDIDATE RECRUITMENT OF WOMEN ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY AND CONGRESSIONAL RACES. SOUTH CAROLINA ONE, THAT IS CURRENTLY HELD BY A FRESHMAN DEMOCRAT, WHO IS A MAN. AND THERE ARE TWO WOMEN, ACTUALLY, REPUBLICAN WOMEN RUNNING IN THE PRIMARY, TO TRY TO UNSEAT THE CURRENT INCUMBENT DEMOCRAT IN SOUTH CAROLINA ONE. IT VERY WELL MAY BE THAT WE’LL SEE A SOUTH CAROLINA CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT REPRESENTED BY A WOMAN, POTENTIALLY THIS YEAR.>>Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT, CAPRI CAFARO, EXECUTIVE IN RESIDENCE AT THE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH.>>Sreenivasan: FOR LIVE UPDATES OF THE NEVADA CAUCUS RESULTS, VISIT www.pbs.org/newshour.>>Sreenivasan: ON MONDAY, PRESIDENT TRUMP WILL BE IN INDIA TO MEET WITH PRIME MINISTER NARENDRA MODI, AND, IN A FEW WEEKS, THE U.S. WILL BEGIN MAILING OUT CENSUS FORMS. THOSE MIGHT NOT SOUND LIKE RELATED EVENTS, BUT, CURRENTLY, BOTH COUNTRIES ARE STRUGGLING WITH THE QUESTION OF WHO IS WELCOME IN THEIR COUNTRY AND WHO IS NOT BASED ON CITIZENSHIP. IN INDIA, MR. TRUMP IS EXPECTED TO DISCUSS THE ISSUE OF HOW RELIGION HAS PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN A NEW LAW THAT MANY ARE CALLING ANTI-MUSLIM. LAST DECEMBER, AMID WIDESPREAD PROTESTS, THE GOVERNMENT THERE PASSED A CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT ALLOWING HINDUS AND MEMBERS OF OTHER PERSECUTED FAITHS FROM NEIGHBORING COUNTRIES TO GET ON A FAST TRACK TO CITIZENSHIP, BUT, NOTABLY, IT EXCLUDED MUSLIMS. IN THE INDIAN STATE OF ASSAM, MUSLIMS, HINDUS AND OTHER IMMIGRANTS ARE FEELING THE STING OF A STATEWIDE ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE CITIZENSHIP. ALIMUDDIN SHEIKH IS A 49-YEAR- OLD MUSLIM MAN WHO LIVES IN THE TOWN OF BIJNI IN INDIA. HE MAKES A MEAGER LIVING WORKING AS A DAY LABORER. SHEIKH’S LIFE IS NOT EASY, BUT, LAST AUGUST, IT BECAME MUCH HARDER WHEN THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT TOLD HIM HE WAS NO LONGER A CITIZEN.>>(translated): IT’S REALLY A SHAMEFUL MATTER. EVERYONE IS SAYING I’M A BANGLADESHI.>>Sreenivasan: LAST YEAR, THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT CREATED A LIST KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL REGISTER OF CITIZENS, OR N.R.C., TO DETERMINE HOW MANY UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS THERE WERE AMONG THE 33 MILLION RESIDENTS IN THE STATE OF ASSAM. SHEIKH WAS ONE OF 1.9 MILLION PEOPLE EXCLUDED FROM THE LIST, EFFECTIVELY RENDERING THEM STATELESS. LOCATED IN NORTHEAST INDIA, ASSAM IS SANDWICHED BETWEEN THE NATIONS OF BHUTAN TO THE NORTH AND BANGLADESH TO THE SOUTH. ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION FROM BANGLADESH HAS BEEN A CONTENTIOUS ISSUE FOR DECADES, AT TIMES SPARKING ETHNIC CLASHES. THE TENSIONS PEAKED IN 1983 WHEN THOUSANDS OF MUSLIM BANGLADESHIS WERE MASSACRED BY ANGRY LOCALS. SINCE THEN, THE GOVERNMENT HAS MAINTAINED A HEAVY MILITARY PRESENCE, BUT VIOLENCE BETWEEN IMMIGRANTS AND ASSAMESE LOCALS HAS ERUPTED PERIODICALLY. SOME ASSAMESE SAY THEY ARE THE ONES BEING PERSECUTED, CLAIMING BANGLADESHI IMMIGRANTS ARE DESTROYING THEIR LAND RIGHTS AND CULTURAL IDENTITY.>>Sreenivasan: ABHIJIT SARMA IS A LOCAL BUSINESSMAN WHO WORKS IN ASSAM’S CAPITAL OF GUWAHATI AND REPRESENTS A NON-PROFIT CALLED ASSAM PUBLIC WORKS, WHICH ADVOCATES AGAINST ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. HE’S ALSO THE MOTIVATOR BEHIND THE NEW N.R.C. FRUSTRATED WITH IMMIGRATION, SARMA FILED A PETITION WITH THE SUPREME COURT IN 2009, ASKING FOR ACTION ON IDENTIFYING UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS IN ASSAM.>>Sreenivasan: IN 2013, HE WON. INDIA’S SUPREME COURT ORDERED THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF ASSAM TO CREATE A NEW REGISTER OF CITIZENS IN THE STATE. IT TOOK FOUR YEARS, MORE THAN 50,000 GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES, AND COST MORE THAN $200 MILLION. RESIDENTS OF ASSAM WERE REQUIRED TO APPLY WITH DOCUMENTATION PROVING THEY OR THEIR FAMILY HAD LIVED IN INDIA BEFORE 1971, THE CUT-OFF DATE FOR IMMIGRANTS TO BE CONSIDERED INDIAN CITIZENS. WHEN THE GOVERNMENT RELEASED THE FINAL LIST OF CITIZENS, MANY WERE SURPRISED TO FIND THEIR NAMES MISSING. THERE ARE PLENTY OF ERRORS IN THE GOVERNMENT DATABASE. TAKE FOR EXAMPLE THE CASE OF ALIMUDDIN SHEIKH. NOW, THE GOVERNMENT HAS A RECORD OF HIS GRANDFATHER, WHO WAS REGISTERED IN 1951; THE GOVERNMENT HAS A RECORD OF HIS DAD, REGISTERED IN 1966; HE HAS TAX CARDS; HE HAS A VOTER I.D.; HIS KIDS HAVE BIRTH CERTIFICATES HERE. AND YET, HE WAS STILL REJECTED. SHEIKH SAYS HIS OLDER BROTHERDIDMAKE IT ONTO THE LIST.>>(translated): I CANNOT SAY WHY IT HAPPENED. I SUBMITTED THE SAME PAPERS THAT MY ELDER BROTHER DID. SAME PAPERS WERE SUBMITTED.>>Sreenivasan: SUBMITTING PAPERWORK WAS EXPENSIVE FOR SHEIKH, WHO EARNS ABOUT $2 A DAY. HE SAYS THE EFFORTS TO PROVE HIS CITIZENSHIP HAVE COST HIS FAMILY MORE THAN $100.>>THE VAST MAJORITY OF THE PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN EXCLUDED FROM THE LIST ARE POOR, UNLETTERED, ILLITERATE, AND MANY OF THEM WILL NOT BE ABLE TO AFFORD LAWYERS.>>Sreenivasan: AMAN WADUD IS A LAWYER WORKING PRO-BONO FOR HUNDREDS WHO HAVE BEEN LEFT OFF THE N.R.C. HE SAYS, IN ADDITION TO THE FINANCIAL HARDSHIPS, THE PROCESS DOES NOT ACCOUNT FOR DISCREPANCIES IN DOCUMENTS LIKE COMMON NAME CHANGES AFTER A MARRIAGE, OR EVEN SIMPLE TYPOS. LOOK, THE GOVERNMENT’S SIDE IS– IS, WE SHOULD KNOW WHO IS INSIDE OUR BORDERS, WHO IS A CITIZEN, AND WHO IS NOT. AND WE SHOULD PROTECT THE RIGHTS OF THE EXISTING MINORITIES THAT ARE HERE. WHAT’S SO WRONG WITH THAT IDEA?>>THIS COUNTRY IS STRIPPING CITIZENSHIP OF ITS OWN CITIZENS, DECLARING ITS OWN CITIZENS AS FOREIGNERS.>>Sreenivasan: BEFORE THE N.R.C., THE GOVERNMENT OF ASSAM HANDLED UNAUTHORIZED IMMIGRATION ON A CASE-BY-CASE BASIS. IMMIGRATION COURTS KNOWN AS FOREIGNER’S TRIBUNALS DETERMINED CITIZENSHIP STATUS, PLACING UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS IN DETENTION CENTERS. 60-YEAR-OLD MADHUMALA MONDAL WAS ONE OF THOSE CASES. IN 2009, MONDAL SAYS SHE WAS BUILDING A FIRE TO STAY WARM ONE NIGHT IN BISHNUPUR, AN ASSAMESE VILLAGE, WHEN IMMIGRATION POLICE CAME LOOKING FOR A WOMAN NAMED MADHUMALADAS.MONDAL ASKED TO GO GET HER PAPERS TO PROVE THEY HAD THE WRONG WOMAN.>>(translated): THE POLICEWOMAN DIDN’T LET ME TAKE THE DOCUMENTS. SHE SAID, “IT IS OKAY IF YOU DON’T TAKE IT. YOU WILL BE BACK BY EVENING.”>>Sreenivasan: AT THE POLICE STATION, MONDAL TRIED TO EXPLAIN THE MIX-UP IN NAMES.>>(translated): AFTER QUESTIONING, I SAID, “NO, MY SURNAME IS MONDAL, AND MONDAL IS WRITTEN IN MY DOCUMENTS, AS WELL. I AM NOT DAS. I DIDN’T HAVE THAT SURNAME. MY VOTER DOCUMENT SAYS I AM MONDAL.ALLMY DOCUMENTS HAVE MONDAL. FOR THIS, YOU ARE TAKING ME TO JAIL?” THEY SAID, “NO, YOUR SURNAME IS DAS.”>>Sreenivasan: MONDAL SAYS SHE WAS TAKEN TO THE KOKRAJHAR DETENTION CENTER IN WESTERN ASSAM, WHERE THE GOVERNMENT HELD HER FOR THREE YEARS IN A CRAMPED ROOM WITH 60 TO 70 WOMEN WHO ALL SHARED A SINGLE TOILET. MONDAL SAYS AT TIMES AUTHORITIES WITHHELD FOOD. SHE WAS FINALLY RELEASED AFTER LOCAL ACTIVISTS BROUGHT PUBLICITY TO HER CASE, BUT SHE SAYS SHE STILL SUFFERS FROM THE EFFECTS OF HER INCARCERATION.>>(translated): NOW I CANNOT WORK. I HAVE NO STRENGTH.>>Sreenivasan: THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT IS NOW BUILDING NEW DETENTION CENTERS TO HOLD THE INFLUX OF THOSE DECLARED NON-CITIZENS IN THE NEW N.R.C. ALIMUDDIN SHEIKH FEARS SUFFERING A FATE SIMILAR TO MONDAL’S.>>(translated): I FEEL ANGRY. NOW ONLY ONE THING: IF I COULDN’T MAKE IT TO N.R.C., THEN I WILL HAVE NO CHOICE OTHER THAN TO DIE.>>Sreenivasan: OKAY, THAT SEEMS A DRASTIC LEAP.>>(translated): AS I HAVE TO GO AND LIVE IN THE DETENTION CAMP, HAVE TO LIVE IN JAIL? INSTEAD OF STAYING THERE, IT IS BETTER TO DIE.>>IF A PERSON IS DECLARED AS FOREIGNER, IT IS WORSE THAN A DEATH PENALTY. YOU MIGHT BE DEPRIVED OF THE RIGHT TO LAND. YOU’D BE DEPRIVED OF A RIGHT TO JOB. YOU WOULD BE DENIED THE BASIC RIGHTS, LIKE THE RIGHT TO HEALTH, RIGHT TO EDUCATION. IT’S A FRIGHTENING THING TO GET DETAINED FOR NO FAULT OF YOURS. AND IF YOU ASK ALL THESE PEOPLE, THEY KNOW THIS ONE COUNTRY, WHICH IS INDIA. THEY ARE BORN HERE. THEIR PARENTS ARE BORN HERE. THEIR GRANDPARENTS ARE BORN HERE. THEY DON’T KNOW ANY OTHER COUNTRY APART FROM INDIA.>>Sreenivasan: WHAT IS YOUR SOLUTION TO SOMEBODY WHO SAYS, “LISTEN, I’M AS INDIAN AS THE NEXT GUY. MY WHOLE LIFE, MY KIDS’ LIVES HAVE ALL BEEN SPENT IN ASSAM. WHY ARE YOU TELLING ME I’M NOT INDIAN?”>>Sreenivasan: ACCORDING TO A RECENT SUPREME COURT RULING, THOSE IN DETENTION CAMPS WHO HAVE COMPLETED MORE THAN THREE YEARS MAY BE RELEASED ON BAIL. AMAN WADUD SAYS EVEN THE FEW WHO CAN MAKE BAIL FACE AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE.>>THERE IS NO WAY THAT ANOTHER COUNTRY WILL TAKE HIM. YOU CANNOT DEPORT THAT PERSON. THAT WILL LEAD TO STATELESSNESS.>>Sreenivasan: YEAH.>>Sreenivasan: THE U.N. HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES HAS EXPRESSED CONCERN OVER THE POSSIBILITY OF PEOPLE BECOMING STATELESS IN ASSAM. HOWEVER, INDIA IS NOT A SIGNATORY TO THE U.N. CONVENTIONS RELATED TO REDUCING STATELESSNESS. AS SUCH, THERE’S LITTLE THAT THE U.N. CAN DO TO INTERVENE. THOUGH CLOSE TO TWO MILLION PEOPLE WERE DECLARED NON- CITIZENS IN THE N.R.C., SARMA SAYS HE’S DISAPPOINTED THERE WERE NOT MORE PEOPLE LEFT OFF THE LIST. ORIGINALLY, YOU THOUGHT SEVEN TO EIGHT MILLION BANGLADESHIS WERE IN THE STATE OF ASSAM AND WERE VOTING HERE, BUT YOUR SURVEY NOW HAS FOUND ONLY TWO MILLION PEOPLE.>>YEAH.>>Sreenivasn: SO, THEN, WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SEVEN MILLION?>>Sreenivasan: YOU THINK ALL OF THESE PEOPLE HAVE FAKE DOCUMENTS?>>Sreenivasan: SARMA WANTS THE GOVERNMENT TO RE-VERIFY PART OF THE N.R.C., ALLEGING THAT BANGLADESHI IMMIGRANTS HAVE MADE IT ONTO THE LIST USING FORGED DOCUMENTS. IMMIGRATION ATTORNEY AMAN WADUD SAYS THE CLAIM OF FORGERIES IS FALSE. HE SAYS THE LARGER ISSUE IS THE PROCESS UNFAIRLY DISCRIMINATES AGAINST THOSE WITHOUT THE MEANS TO DEFEND THEMSELVES.>>MOST OF THE PEOPLE ARE POOR, AND CAN PEOPLE REALLY AFFORD TO GO TO THE HIGHER COURTS?>>Sreenivasan: MUSLIMS LIKE ALIMUDDIN SHEIKH MAY BE THE ONLY ONES LEFT OFF THE N.R.C. LIST WHO HAVE TO WAIT FOR THEIR DAY IN COURT. HINDUS, SIKHS, BUDDHISTS, PARSIS, JAINS, AND CHRISTIANS MAY BE ABLE TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THE NEW CITIZENSHIP AMENDMENT ACT FOR A FAST TRACK TO CITIZENSHIP.>>THIS IS PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND,SATURDAY.>>Sreenivasan: STREETS PACKED WITH CARS AND TRUCKS IN THE WORLD’S CITIES MAKE PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALKS, ALSO CALLED “ZEBRA CROSSINGS,” A SOMETIMES DANGEROUS PLACE. IN BOLIVIA, AN UNUSUAL AND VERY POPULAR SOLUTION IS TO LITERALLY BRING ZEBRAS– OKAY, PEOPLE IN ZEBRA COSTUMES– ONTO THOSE STREETS. SUSAN LIMACHI IS SUITING UP FOR HER THIRD YEAR AS A ZEBRA. SHE’S ONE OF HUNDREDS OF BOLIVIANS KNOWN AS “ZEBRA URBAN EDUCATORS,” WORKING IN FOUR CITIES.>>(translated): WE’RE ALWAYS ACTIVE IN OUR JOBS. WE ARE URBAN EDUCATORS. WE AREN’T CLOWNS, EVEN THOUGH PEOPLE SAY TO US THAT WE BRING HAPPINESS AND MAKE THEM LAUGH.>>Sreenivasan: DESPITE THEIR ANTICS IN THE BUSY STREETS, THE ZEBRAS HAVE A SERIOUS JOB.>>(translated): IT’S A CHALLENGE TO TALK TO CITIZENS AND GET THEM TO REFLECT. IT’S A LITTLE DIFFICULT, BUT IT GIVES YOU SATISFACTION WHEN YOU GET A DRIVER TO SEE AND STOP AT THE PEDESTRIAN CROSSING, OR WHEN A PERSON STOPS AT THE RED LIGHT.>>Sreenivasan: THE ZEBRAS LEARN THEIR JOB IN WORKSHOPS, AND THERE IS OFTEN A WAITING LIST TO APPLY FOR THE PAID POSITIONS.>>(translated): WE WANT TO SEND A MESSAGE OUT WITH THIS IMAGE AS A ZEBRA BECAUSE NOT MANY PEOPLE WOULD HAVE OTHERWISE PAID ATTENTION. THIS IMAGE GIVES US TOOLS OUT ON THE STREETS.>>Sreenivasan: USING HUMOR AND EVEN SPONTANEOUS ON-THE-STREET DEMONSTRATIONS OF DANGER, THE ZEBRAS ARE NOW IN THEIR 19th YEAR OF EDUCATING BOLIVIAN DRIVERS AND PEDESTRIANS.>>(translated): FOR US ZEBRAS, ONE OF THE BEST THINGS IS WHEN A CHILD SEES US, COMES RUNNING TO US FOR A HUG AND SAYS “HOW ARE YOU?” OR WHEN AN ELDERLY PERSON COMES AND GIVES YOU A HUG, THEY SAY, “THANK YOU FOR EVERYTHING THE ZEBRAS DO, YOU’RE THE BEST THING IN THIS CITY.” THAT GIVES US GREAT JOY. IT MOTIVATES ME TO KEEP GOING AND TO SHOW THE BEST OF OUR CITY.>>Sreenivasan: WE HAVE SOME EARLY RESULTS FROM THE NEVADA CAUCUSES TONIGHT WITH JUST OVER 3% OF THE PRECINCTS REPORTING AFTER 6:00 P.M. EASTERN TIME. SENATOR BERNIE SANDERS IS LEADING WITH MORE THAN 54% OF THE VOTE, FORMER VICE PRESIDENT JOE BIDEN HAS CLOSE TO 18%, AND SENATOR ELIZABETH WARREN HAS JUST UNDER 10%. YOU CAN FIND REAL-TIME UPDATES TONIGHT ON OUR WEB SITE AT www.pbs.org/newshour. TOMORROW, WE’LL HAVE ANALYSIS AND REACTIONS ON THE BROADCAST. THAT’S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND. I’M HARI SREENIVASAN. THANKS FOR WATCHING. HAVE A GOOD NIGHT.>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADEPOSSIBLE BY:BERNARD AND IRENE SCHWARTZ.SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEINFAMILY.ROSALIND P. WALTER.BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.CHARLES ROSENBLUM.WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,TO NOT MISS WHAT’S RIGHT INFRONT OF US.AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WEBELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROWCAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OFTODAY.MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIALGROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES ANDINVESTMENTS.>>WHEN IT COMES TO WIRELESS, CONSUMER CELLULAR GIVES ITS CUSTOMERS THE CHOICE. OUR NO-CONTRACT PLANS GIVE YOU AS MUCH– OR AS LITTLE– TALK, TEXT AND DATA AS YOU WANT, AND OUR U.S.-BASED CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAM IS ON HAND TO HELP. TO LEARN MORE, GO TO consumercellular.tv.ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEENPROVIDED BY:AND BY THE CORPORATION FORPUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATECORPORATION FUNDED BY THEAMERICAN PEOPLE.AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOURPBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKEYOU.THANK YOU.

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