Principles of inheritance and variation class-12th /chapter 5/lecture-3

Principles of inheritance and variation class-12th /chapter 5/lecture-3


Hello friends good evening. welcome to our you tube channel ETA online classes (Education to all ) Today we are talking about Terminology of Genetics if you use mobile phone . to see the caption , press 3 dot on the top left corner and press them As soon as you click , you will see a caption , after viewing the caption , click the caption and select your language students who are watching this video on the desktop .click the caption box next to the setting below the video and select your language F 1 generation – first generation parent Gamete male gamete and female gamete Mendel Used Factors – The concept of a gene (the word itself was introduced by Bateson) is due to Mendel, who used the German word “Factor”term “element” or “factor” . This factors were referred as genes By Johannsen / Johansson (1909) Gene – A gene is the basic physical and functional “ unit of heredity “. Genes are made up of DNA. Some genesact as instructions to make molecules called proteins. However, many genes do not code for proteins . Genes are made up of DNA . DNA-Deoxyribonucleic acid. Composed of nucleic acids, these molecules encode the genes that allow genetic information to be passed to offspring ChromosomeRod-shaped structures within the cell nucleus that carry genes encoded by DNA DNA-Deoxyribonucleic acid. Composed of nucleic acids, these molecules encode the genes that allow genetic information to be passed to offspring. part of DNA which have particular information known as gene gene show as dot or point like on a cromosome part of DNA which have particular information known as gene It made of polynucleotide It made of polynucleotide johansson 1901 Part of chromosome where Gene are present known as locus Part of chromosome where Gene are present known as locus Gene are arranged in linearly on chromosome these molecules encode the genes that allow genetic information to be passed to offspring. It have information for translation Allele / Allelomorph – An alternative form of a gene that occurs at the same locus on homologous chromosomes. Term given by Batson An alternative form of a gene that occurs at the same locus on homologous chromosomes.Term given by Batson An alternative form of a gene that occurs at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
Term given by Batson Homozygous – Term given by Batson
A zygote is fusion of two gametes having identical factors is called Homozygote and organism devolved from this zygote is called homozygous. A cell with two identical genes.TT / tt /RR/rr.That means same gene Homozygous – Term given by Batson
A zygote is fusion of two gametes having identical factors is called Homozygote and organism devolved from this zygote is called homozygous. A cell with two identical genes.TT / tt /RR/rr.That means same gene Homozygous – Term given by Batson
A zygote is fusion of two gametes having identical factors is called Homozygote and organism devolved from this zygote is called homozygous. A cell with two identical genes.TT / tt /RR/rr.That means same gene That means same gene ex- TT/tt/RR/rr/YY/yy same type of gene known as Homozygous A zygote is formed by fusion of two different types of gamete carrying different factor is called heterozygote and individual developed from such zygote called heterozygous . that means different set of gene known as heterozygous ex- Tt/Rr/Yy Hemizygoous : if individual contains only one gene of pair then individual said to be hemizygous. Such as male and female zygote are alwase Hemizygose . ex- 22+x /22+y Gamete are having only one gene of pair so are hemizygous Hemizygoous : if individual contains only one gene of pair then individual said to be hemizygous. Such as male and female zygote are alwase Hemizygose . ex- 22+x /22+y Gamete are having only one gene of pair so are hemizygous An inherited trait that results from the expression of the dominant allele over the recessive allele. Supplement.The inheritance of one or two copies of the dominantalleles results in the expression of a dominant trait. Also called: dominant character. Dominance is the ability of one allele (dominant) to express itself even in the presence of the other allele it does not require another similar allele to produce its effect on the phenotype.Example : Tt is tall. A gene which express itself in homozygous as well in heterozygous genotype is said to be dominant A gene which express itself only in homozygous genotype is said to be recessive Recessive forms an incomplete defective polypeptide chain or enzyme, as a result, it fails to express its effect. It produces its phenotypic effect only in the presence of a similar allele. Example : tt is dwarf/yy/rr A gene which express itself only in homozygous genotype is said to be recessive. Reciprocal cross – a male expressing the trait of interest will be crossed with a female not expressing the trait. When A plant have two flower A and B ., they should be bisexual . then in 1st condition we use male part of A and female part of B in cross When A plant have two flower A and B ., they should be bisexual . then in 1st condition we use male part of A and female part of B in cross In 2nd condition we use female part of A and male part of B in cross and see offspring these cross known as Reciprocal cross Back cross -That means when an individual is cross with any of its parent In genetics, a test cross, first introduced by Gregor Mendel, involves the breeding of an individual with a phenotypically recessive individual test- We can say that When an individual is crossed with recessive parent

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