Reawakening Extinct Species

Reawakening Extinct Species


Dumbacher: WHEN A SPECIES
GOES EXTINCT, THAT’S THE END. Narrator: OR IS IT? SCIENTISTS ARE TRYING
TO BRING BACK EXTINCT SPECIES, EVERYTHING FROM
THE WOOLLY MAMMOTH TO WHAT WAS ONCE THE MOST
ABUNDANT BIRD IN THE WORLD. Novak: IF WE DO THAT JUST RIGHT, THEY LAY AN EGG, AND OUT HATCHES
A PASSENGER PIGEON. [ GUNSHOT ]
Narrator: BRINGING SPECIES BACK MIGHT BE A WAY
TO CORRECT PAST MISTAKES. BUT JUST BECAUSE WE CAN,
SHOULD WE? COMING UP ON “QUEST” —
REAWAKENING EXTINCT SPECIES. Announcer: SUPPORT FOR
“KQED SCIENCE” IS PROVIDED BY… SUPPORT IS ALSO PROVIDED
BY THE MEMBERS OF KQED. [ FOOTSTEPS APPROACHING ] Novak:
I NEVER WORE BOOTS GROWING UP. I WAS FROM NORTH DAKOTA —
COWBOY COUNTRY — BUT I NEVER WORE THEM. SO, THESE ARE
MY GRANDFATHER’S BOOTS. WHEN HE PASSED AWAY,
IT TURNED OUT THAT I WAS THE ONLY ONE
IN THE FAMILY WHO WAS
THE EXACT SAME SIZE HE IS. SO I TOOK HIS BOOTS, AND I’VE BEEN WEARING THEM
EVER SINCE. THE FIRST PIGEON I EVER RAISED WAS GIVEN TO ME
BY MY GRANDFATHER. HE ABSOLUTELY LOVED THEM. AND I’M PRETTY SURE THAT’S WHY I ENDED UP LOVING BIRDS,
AS WELL. Narrator: AT THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ, 27-YEAR-OLD BEN NOVAK IS ONE OF ABOUT
A DOZEN SCIENTISTS WORLDWIDE WORKING IN THE NEW FIELD
OF DE-EXTINCTION. THEIR GOAL IS TO DO SOMETHING THAT MAY SOUND
LIKE SCIENCE FICTION — BRING BACK SPECIES THAT HAVE
DISAPPEARED FROM THE PLANET. NOVAK IS WORKING TO DE-EXTINCT
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. AMONG THE WORLD’S
300 PIGEONS AND DOVES, IT STOOD OUT FOR BEING ELEGANT,
FAST, AND THE MOST ABUNDANT BIRD
IN THE WORLD. Novak: WELL, I FIRST DISCOVERED
THE PASSENGER PIGEON IN A BOOKSTORE. I WAS A NAIVE,
JUNIOR-HIGH STUDENT. I FELL IN LOVE WITH THE BIRD
JUST FROM SEEING IT — THE BLUE, THE RED,
THE FANNED TAIL, AND THOSE SWIFT WINGS. IN THE EARLY 1800s, THERE WERE
5 BILLION OF THESE BIRDS JUST IN THE UNITED STATES. WITHIN THE SPAN OF ABOUT
50 YEARS, THEY GO EXTINCT. THIS AMAZING, BEAUTIFUL BIRD THAT I’VE JUST FALLEN
IN LOVE WITH IS EXTINCT, SO I CAN’T SEE THEM. AND THERE’S THIS ABSOLUTE SCALE
TO ITS POPULATION THAT I CAN’T EVEN WRAP
MY HEAD AROUND. THAT SEALED THE DEAL FOR ME. I WAS A PASSENGER-PIGEON
ENTHUSIAST, AND I WILL BE
UNTIL THE DAY I DIE. EVEN THOUGH 20 YEARS AGO, THE CONCEPT OF RE-CREATING
AN EXTINCT ORGANISM WAS COMPLETE SCIENCE FICTION, WE NOW HAVE THE BUILDING BLOCKS
OF SCIENCE TO DO THIS. -Sarah: BE RIGHT BACK.
-Ian: SARAH, NO! NO! Narrator: THE HUMAN DESIRE TO COME FACE-TO-FACE WITH
LONG-GONE ANIMALS ISN’T NEW. Sarah: ROBERT BURKE SAID
THAT THE T-REX WAS A ROGUE WHO WOULD ABANDON ITS YOUNG
AT THE EARLIEST OPPORTUNITY. I KNOW I CAN PROVE OTHERWISE. Narrator: IN THE 1993
BLOCKBUSTER “JURASSIC PARK” AND ITS SEQUEL, “LOST WORLD,” SCIENTISTS VENTURE
ONTO A TROPICAL ISLAND TO GET A CLOSEUP LOOK
AT CLONED DINOSAURS. THE MOVIES PORTRAYED THEM
WITH GRIPPING REALISM. BUT 65 MILLION YEARS
AFTER THEIR EXTINCTION, THERE’S NO CHANCE
THEY’RE COMING BACK. Shapiro: “JURASSIC PARK”
IS A FANTASY AND ALWAYS WILL BE. DINOSAURS ARE WAY TOO OLD TO THINK
THAT WE’RE GOING TO BE ABLE TO RECOVER GENETIC MATERIAL. Narrator: BECAUSE DNA ONLY LASTS
ABOUT 100,000 YEARS, SCIENTISTS ARE NOW FOCUSING ON SPECIES THAT DISAPPEARED
WITHIN THAT TIME FRAME. AND THEY’RE TRYING DIFFERENT
APPROACHES TO BRING THEM BACK. SCIENTISTS HAVE ALREADY REVIVED
ONE EXTINCT ANIMAL. THE LAST
OF A TYPE OF MOUNTAIN GOAT WAS CLONED IN SPAIN IN 2003 FROM A SKIN SAMPLE TAKEN
WHILE SHE WAS STILL ALIVE. HER CLONE ONLY LIVED
A FEW MINUTES, AND RESEARCHERS REPEATED
THEIR ATTEMPTS IN 2014. IN AUSTRALIA, SCIENTISTS
ARE ATTEMPTING TO CLONE A UNIQUE FROG THAT GAVE BIRTH
THROUGH ITS MOUTH, AND THE TASMANIAN TIGER, A CARNIVORE THAT CARRIED
ITS YOUNG IN A POUCH. AND IN THE NETHERLANDS, RESEARCHERS ARE BREEDING CATTLE
TO CLOSELY RESEMBLE THE AUROCHS, THE ANCESTORS
OF ALL MODERN COWS AND BULLS. Phelan: AND THEN THERE’S GROUPS
LIKE US, AT REVIVE & RESTORE, THINKING ABOUT BRINGING BACK
THE PASSENGER PIGEON, AND THAT’S GONNA BE
KIND OF A NEW TERRAIN, WHERE WE’RE ACTUALLY GONNA BE
USING GENOME ENGINEERING. Narrator:
THE NONPROFIT GROUP’S IDEA IS TO TAKE
ITS CLOSEST LIVING RELATIVE, THE BAND-TAILED PIGEON, AND GENETICALLY ENGINEER IT
INTO A PASSENGER PIGEON. Woman:
WE HAVE FOUR IN THE COLLECTION. THESE ARE THE TWO THAT LOOK THE BEST
OF THE ONES THAT WE’VE GOT. AND WE THOUGHT A MALE AND
A FEMALE WOULD BE APPROPRIATE. Novak: I HAD NO IDEA
THAT OAKLAND HAD ANY, SO I WAS REALLY EXCITED TO LEARN ABOUT PIGEONS
THAT I HADN’T HEARD ABOUT YET, BECAUSE I WANT TO SEE THEM ALL. THAT’S THE GOAL. TODAY MAKES NUMBER 338
AND NUMBER 339 THAT I HAVE SEEN. YOU HAVE THIS BEAUTIFUL, LONG,
DOVE-SHAPED TAIL, THESE VERY SWIFT WINGS, VERY POINTED,
VERY NARROW FOR SPEED. IN THE 1800s,
PEOPLE ARE REPORTING THEM TO MAYBE HAVE BEEN FLYING
AT AROUND 60 MILES PER HOUR. Woman: OH, MY GOSH. Narrator: NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH DOMESTICATED
CARRIER PIGEONS, PASSENGER PIGEONS
WERE WILD BIRDS THAT MIGRATED THROUGH THE EASTERN
AND CENTRAL U.S. AND CANADA. THEY TRAVELED BY THE MILLIONS,
SWALLOWING ACORNS WHOLE AND DESTROYING TREES
UNDER THEIR WEIGHT. NATURALIST JOHN JAMES AUDUBON
ONCE WROTE THAT THEIR FLOCKS OBSCURED
THE SUN LIKE AN ECLIPSE. Alvarez:
THERE IS NO PIGEON TODAY THAT FLIES IN FLOCKS LIKE
THE PASSENGER PIGEON USED TO. STORIES SAY SOMETIMES
THEY’D BE TWO MILES WIDE BY FIVE, SIX MILES LONG. Novak: YOU HAD
THESE GIANT FLOCKS OF BIRDS, SO DENSE
THAT WITH A SINGLE SHOT, YOU COULD TAKE DOWN
DOZENS OF THEM, OR YOU COULD LURE THEM
INTO AN AREA AND NET THEM. [ GUNSHOTS ] Narrator:
SHIPPED BY THE TRAINLOADS TO FEED HUNGRY CITIES, THE PASSENGER PIGEON
WENT EXTINCT IN THE WILD IN THE LATE 1800s. THE FEW BIRDS IN CAPTIVITY
SLOWLY DIED OUT, UNTIL ONLY ONE —
NAMED MARTHA — WAS LEFT AT THE CINCINNATI ZOO. HER DEATH IN 1914 MEANT
THE END OF THE PASSENGER PIGEON. Brand: THAT A HUGE POPULATION
COULD JUST GO TO ZERO, THAT WAS THE BEGINNING
OF TAKING EXTINCTION SERIOUSLY. AND SO, TO GO BACK TO THAT
ORIGINAL MISTAKE OR CRIME AND TRY TO UNDO IT, THERE MIGHT
BE SOME REDEMPTION IN THAT. SEVEN, SIX… Narrator: STEWART BRAND HAS BEEN CALLING THE PUBLIC’S ATTENTION
TO THE ENVIRONMENT SINCE THE 1960s. Brand: LET’S GO! Narrator:
HIS “WHOLE EARTH CATALOG” TAUGHT A GENERATION EVERYTHING
FROM GROWING FOOD TO BUILDING
THEIR OWN WIND TURBINES. Brand: IT WAS A COUNTERCULTURE
IN LOVE WITH HIGH-TECH AND BECAME PART OF WHAT’S CALLED THE MODERN
ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT, WHICH HAS NOW BECOME
A BIT ANTIQUATED, IN MY HUMBLE OPINION, BECAUSE IT DID NOT
EMBRACE TECHNOLOGY, I THINK, THE WAY IT SHOULD HAVE,
ESPECIALLY BIO-TECHNOLOGY. DO YOU WANT
EXTINCT SPECIES BACK? DO YOU WANT
EXTINCT SPECIES BACK? [ CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ] Patton: THAT, TO ME,
IS THE WRONG ATTITUDE. WE’RE LOST UNLESS WE REALIZE THAT WE’RE JUST A PART
OF THIS INTRICATE WEB. AND WE OUGHT
TO BRING SPECIES BACK IF THEY CAN HELP MAINTAIN
THAT WEB, BUT NOT BECAUSE
IT MAKES US FEEL BETTER AND SLEEP BETTER AT NIGHT. Narrator: THE ENTERPRISE
OF REVIVING DISAPPEARED SPECIES IS DRIVEN AT LEAST IN PART BY
THE INCREASING EXTINCTION RATE THAT SCIENTISTS HAVE OBSERVED
IN THE PAST 500 YEARS. Dumbacher: THIS CASE CONTAINS SOME OF THE MOST VALUABLE
SPECIMENS IN OUR COLLECTION. THERE ARE ACTUALLY
ONLY TWO KEYS TO THIS CASE. I HAVE ONE, AND THE COLLECTION
MANAGER HAS THE OTHER. HERE ARE THE CAROLINA PARAKEETS. AND THEY WERE QUITE COMMON
IN THE 1800s AND WERE PROBABLY DRIVEN EXTINCT
LARGELY BY HUNTING, ‘CAUSE THEY DID AFFECT FARMERS
AND CROPS. BECAUSE THEY WERE GREGARIOUS,
LIKE MANY PARROTS ARE, THEY WOULD SHOOT ONE,
THE OTHERS WOULD CONTINUE TO FLOCK AROUND
THAT ONE FALLEN BROTHER, AND THEY COULD PICK OFF
THE OTHER ONES. THIS ONE IS THE MOHO. THE KINGS IN HAWAII WOULD USE THIS LITTLE BIT
OF YELLOW IN THEIR CAPES. THESE ARE
OUR IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKERS. AND THEY WERE
IN THE NEWS A LOT RECENTLY BECAUSE THERE WAS A POPULATION
BELIEVED TO HAVE BEEN FOUND IN THE BIG WOODS OF ARKANSAS. AND THEY HAD HOPED THAT SOME FEATHERS THAT
THEY HAD FOUND IN THE FIELD MIGHT HAVE COME FROM
IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKERS. UNFORTUNATELY, THEY ALL TURNED
OUT TO BE OTHER SPECIES. WHEN A SPECIES GOES EXTINCT,
THAT’S THE END. THOSE GENES ARE GONE. THAT JOB IN THE ECOSYSTEM
IS GONE. THAT NICHE DISAPPEARS. SO THERE’S NOTHING LEFT
TO SERVE THAT PURPOSE. HUMANS ARE THE REASON WHY SPECIES ARE GOING EXTINCT
AT A HIGHER RATE. HUMAN POPULATION SIZES
ARE SO BIG THAT WE’RE HAVING A HUGE IMPACT, DESTROYING HABITAT
AND CONVERTING HABITAT FROM ITS NATURAL FORM
INTO AGRICULTURE, TO CITIES, TO OTHER THINGS THAT WE USE. Narrator: CLIMATE CHANGE
IS MAKING THINGS WORSE, BY TURNING THE OCEANS
INHOSPITABLE TO CORAL REEFS, FOR EXAMPLE. SOME SCIENTISTS ESTIMATE THAT IF TEMPERATURES CONTINUE
TO CLIMB, THEY COULD CONTRIBUTE
TO THE DISAPPEARANCE OF HALF THE WORLD’S SPECIES. Dumbacher: TO THE EXTENT THAT WE WANT TO PRESERVE
ANYTHING THAT WE LOVE, YOU HAVE TO WORK AT THAT. AND IF DE-EXTINCTION
IS A PART OF THAT, I THINK IT’S A WONDERFUL TOOL
TO HAVE IN YOUR TOOLBOX. IF YOU’VE GOT SOME ECOSYSTEM
THAT WE KNOW IS COLLAPSING BECAUSE WE’VE LOST
SOME KEY ECOSYSTEM COMPONENT, AND WE CAN DE-EXTINCT IT,
WHY WOULDN’T WE DO THAT? Patton: I WOULD PUT MY EMPHASIS
ON MAINTAINING WHAT WE HAVE AND PREVENTING
FURTHER EXTINCTIONS. IF WE HAVE THESE TECHNOLOGIES, AND THESE TECHNOLOGIES
CAN BE BROUGHT TO BEAR TO HELP PRESERVE
WHAT IS ALREADY HERE, THAT’S WHERE I WOULD PUT
MY RESOURCES. -Phelan: HEY, BEN.
-Novak: HEY. -Phelan: HOW YOU DOING?
-Novak: GOOD. DOING GOOD. Phelan: DID YOU GET
A CUP OF COFFEE YET? BEN NOVAK WROTE US A VERY
ENDEARING LETTER THAT JUST SAID, YOU KNOW,
“SINCE THE TIME I WAS 13, I’VE BEEN WANTING TO DO
EXACTLY THIS,” YOU KNOW? AND STEWART AND I LOOKED
AT EACH OTHER AND SAID, “HOW CAN WE NOT HIRE THIS GUY?” Brand: YOU SEEN THIS COOL THING? Novak:
WELL, ACCORDING TO AMAZON, IT’S NOT PUBLISHED YET. Narrator: RYAN PHELAN AND
STEWART BRAND’S NONPROFIT, REVIVE & RESTORE,
IN SAUSALITO, CALIFORNIA, IS PAYING FOR NOVAK TO WORK AT THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
SANTA CRUZ. THEY ESTIMATE
IT’LL TAKE $5 TO $50 MILLION TO BRING BACK
THE PASSENGER PIGEON. Phelan: ONE QUESTION THAT HAS
COME UP FROM A POTENTIAL FUNDER, WHO ACTUALLY TALKED WITH STEWART
AND I AND SAID, YOU KNOW, “IF WE WERE TO PUT IN
A SIX-FIGURE NUMBER,” YOU KNOW, “HOW COULD IT HELP
FAST-TRACK WHAT YOU’RE DOING?” Brand: SAY IT’S $100,000.
WHAT COULD $100,000 DO FOR US? Novak: WELL,
I THINK $100,000 CAN EASILY DO MORE THAN ONE
COMPARATIVE GENOMICS STUDY. Brand: WHERE THE MONEY TENDS
TO BE COMING IN IS NOT FROM
TRADITIONAL CONSERVATION DONORS, BUT FROM PEOPLE IN HIGH-TECH. THEY LIKE BEING ON
CUTTING EDGES, AND THIS IS ONE. Narrator:
PHELAN, WHO IS MARRIED TO BRAND, KNOWS ABOUT BEING
ON THE CUTTING EDGE. SHE HELPED PIONEER PERSONAL
GENETIC TESTING OVER THE WEB WITH HER COMPANY DNA DIRECT,
WHICH SHE SOLD IN 2010. Phelan: I’VE SEEN THE POWER OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES
IN HUMAN HEALTH. YOU WOULDN’T WANT
TO HAVE CANCER TODAY AND NOT KNOW THAT YOUR TUMOR
HAS BEEN SEQUENCED. I BELIEVE THAT THAT WILL HAPPEN
EXACTLY WITH CONSERVATION. Narrator: PHELAN AND BRAND
HAVE ENLISTED GEORGE CHURCH, ONE OF THE PIONEERS
OF GENOME EDITING. George:
THE SCIENTIFIC BREAKTHROUGHS THAT ARE MAKING THIS
DE-EXTINCTION EVEN PLAUSIBLE AND NOW QUITE REASONABLE,
ARE TWO. ONE IS OUR ABILITY
TO READ ANCIENT DNA, AND THE SECOND IS OUR ABILITY TO CHANGE THE GENOMES
OF BIRDS AND MAMMALS. Narrator: TO BRING BACK
THE PASSENGER PIGEON, SCIENTISTS WILL GENETICALLY
ENGINEER ITS CLOSEST RELATIVE, WHICH TURNS OUT TO BE
A PIGEON FROM THE WEST COAST. IN RIVERSIDE, CALIFORNIA, SAL ALVAREZ IS ONE OF THE FEW
BREEDERS IN THE COUNTRY WHO RAISES
THE BAND-TAILED PIGEON. TO TURN IT
INTO A PASSENGER PIGEON, RESEARCHERS WILL HAVE TO MAKE ITS SQUARE TAIL AND ITS WINGS
MORE AERODYNAMIC. THE BAND UNDER ITS TAIL
WOULD BE REPLACED WITH DOTS. ON THE MALES,
THE CHEST WOULD BECOME RED, AND THE WINGS BLUE. THE PROCESS BEGINS WITH THE SEQUENCING OF
THE BAND-TAILED PIGEON’S GENOME. ALVAREZ CONTRIBUTED
A BLOOD SAMPLE FROM ONE OF HIS PIGEONS. Alvarez:
SO, THIS IS ACTUALLY THE PIGEON THAT WE PICKED OUT
TO DO ALL THE TESTING FROM. WE NAMED IT SALLY. RYAN AND STEWART,
THEY BOTH CAME UP WITH THAT NAME BECAUSE OF MY NAME BEING SAL. Narrator: ONCE SALLY’S GENOME
HAS BEEN SEQUENCED, NOVAK WILL COMPARE IT TO
THE PASSENGER PIGEON’S GENOME. BECAUSE IT’S EXTINCT, RESEARCHERS HAVE TO SEQUENCE
ITS DNA FROM SPECIMENS STORED AT MUSEUMS LIKE THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY
OF SCIENCES. Dumbacher: YOU CAN TAKE
A LITTLE TINY SNIPPET OF THIS DRIED TOE SKIN. AND WE FIND THAT THE DNA’s
PRETTY EASY TO GET OUT OF THERE. IT’S VERY DEGRADED,
BUT IT’S IN BETTER SHAPE THAN SOME OF THE OTHER PARTS
OF THE BODY. Narrator: EVEN THOUGH
RESEARCHERS HAVE PLENTY OF PASSENGER-PIGEON DNA
TO WORK WITH, THEY FACE A CHALLENGE. DNA FROM A DEAD ANIMAL
IS BROKEN INTO MANY TINY PIECES AND NEEDS TO BE PAINSTAKINGLY
ASSEMBLED LIKE A PUZZLE. Shapiro:
WHAT WOULD BE REALLY HELPFUL WOULD BE IF WE WERE TO HAVE
THE BOX TOP THAT GOES WITH THAT PUZZLE, WITH THE PICTURE ON IT
THAT WE COULD USE TO TRY TO PIECE
THESE LITTLE PIECES TOGETHER. WHEN WE’RE WORKING
WITH AN EXTINCT SPECIES, WE DON’T HAVE THAT. INSTEAD, WE CAN FIGURE OUT WHAT
THAT PUZZLE TOP SHOULD LOOK LIKE FOR THE BAND-TAILED PIGEON. AND THEN WE’RE GONNA USE THAT
TO TRY TO PIECE TOGETHER THESE TINY
LITTLE BROKEN FRAGMENTS AND COME UP
WITH THE PASSENGER PIGEON. Narrator: THE PASSENGER PIGEON
GENES THAT AREN’T PRESENT IN THE BAND-TAILED PIGEON’S
GENOME COULD TURN OUT TO BE WHAT GIVES THE EXTINCT
BIRD ITS UNIQUE TRAITS — ITS RED BREAST OR ITS SWIFT WINGS
AND LONG TAIL. ONCE SCIENTISTS FIGURE OUT
WHAT THOSE GENES ARE, THEY’LL BUILD THEM IN THE LAB
USING CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. THEN THEY PLAN TO INSERT
THOSE PASSENGER-PIGEON GENES INTO BAND-TAILED-PIGEON CELLS, USING NEW
GENOME-EDITING TECHNOLOGY. George:
IT’S LIKE VERY PRECISE SCISSORS THAT ALLOW YOU TO CUT AND SPLICE WITH UNPRECEDENTED ACCURACY
AND EASE OF USE. OUR EXPERIENCE
WITH THE EDITING TECHNOLOGIES IS THEY WORK
ON EVERY ORGANISM WE’VE TRIED, FROM PLANTS
TO FUNGI AND SO FORTH. Narrator: THE LAST STEP WOULD BE
TO INSERT THOSE NEW CELLS INTO BAND-TAILED PIGEON EGGS. Novak: IF WE DO THAT JUST RIGHT,
WE’LL GET BAND-TAILED PIGEONS THAT CARRY THE SPERM AND
THE EGGS OF PASSENGER PIGEONS. SO THAT WHEN YOU TAKE A MALE
AND A FEMALE, BREED THEM TOGETHER,
THEY LAY AN EGG, AND OUT HATCHES
A PASSENGER PIGEON. Narrator: THEN THE CHICK
WOULD NEED A NAME. Brand: IF YOU TURN A BAND-TAILED
PIGEON INTO A PASSENGER PIGEON, IS IT REALLY A PASSENGER PIGEON, OR IS IT JUST SOME WEIRD KIND
OF CHIMERA OR HYBRID OR WHAT? AND THE ANSWER IS
WE DON’T KNOW YET. AND YOU WON’T REALLY KNOW
UNTIL YOU TRY IT. Narrator: THE NEW BIRDS
WOULD JOIN OTHER TYPES OF BIRDS THAT HAVE BEEN SUCCESSFULLY BRED
IN CAPTIVITY. SOME OF THE STRATEGIES
MIGHT SEEM FARFETCHED. HUMANS HAVE SERVED
AS SURROGATE PARENTS FOR THE CALIFORNIA CONDOR. AND THEY TAKE TO THE AIR
TO HELP WHOOPING CRANES MIGRATE. WITH THE PASSENGER PIGEON, ONE GOAL WOULD BE TO TEACH
THE BIRDS TO STICK TOGETHER, SO THEY WON’T GO OFF AND JOIN
FLOCKS OF OTHER PIGEON SPECIES. Novak: WE COULD TAKE
WHITE ROCK PIGEONS, TRAIN THEM TO FLY
FROM ONE AREA TO ANOTHER, TO BE OUR ADULT FLOCK OF BIRDS. AND THEN WE CAN DYE THEIR
FEATHERS BLUE ON THE BACK, RED ON THE BREASTS, MAKE THEM
LOOK LIKE PASSENGER PIGEONS, SO THAT OUR BABY
PASSENGER PIGEONS SEE A FLOCK OF PASSENGER PIGEONS
GOING FROM ONE AREA TO ANOTHER. Narrator: BUT A KEY QUESTION
HAS NEVER BEEN ANSWERED. Shapiro: WE DON’T KNOW ANYTHING
ABOUT WHETHER OR NOT THE PASSENGER PIGEON NEEDS
TO EXIST IN HUGE NUMBERS IN ORDER TO SURVIVE AT ALL. TO ANYONE WHO REALLY WANTS TO BRING THE PASSENGER PIGEON
BACK TO LIFE, I’D SAY
THAT KNOWING WHETHER OR NOT THEY’RE GOING TO NEED TO BRING
BACK BILLIONS OF THEM IS PROBABLY
A PRETTY GOOD QUESTION. Narrator: SHAPIRO AND NOVAK
ARE DOING GENETIC STUDIES TO CLARIFY
WHETHER OR NOT PASSENGER PIGEONS CAN ONLY SURVIVE IN HUGE FLOCKS. THIS WILL HELP DETERMINE IF THERE’S ACTUALLY ENOUGH
FOREST TO SUPPORT THEM. Patton: IT’S A MINUSCULE AMOUNT
COMPARED TO WHAT IT WAS IN PRE-INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
DAYS. Phelan:
THE EASTERN DECIDUOUS FOREST HAS MADE A GREAT COMEBACK
IN THE LAST 100 YEARS. TALKING WITH A NUMBER
OF DIFFERENT CONSERVATIONISTS, THEY REALLY DO BELIEVE
THAT THERE IS HABITAT THERE. Narrator: EVEN IF THERE IS
ENOUGH FOREST FOR THE PASSENGER PIGEON, THE REVIVED BIRD COULD END UP IN
CONFLICT WITH HUMANS ONCE AGAIN, ESPECIALLY IF IT WERE LISTED UNDER
THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT. Shapiro:
IF IT’S AN ENDANGERED SPECIES, THEN ALL OF A SUDDEN, ALL OF THE FOREST HABITAT
WHERE IT GOES INTO WILL BE OFF-LIMITS TO HUNTING
AND HIKING AND BIKING, AND I’M NOT SURE THAT
THAT WOULD BE SOMETHING THAT WAS WELL-RECEIVED
BY SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION. Patton: WILL THE PEOPLE
ON THE EAST COAST BE WILLING TO PUT UP
WITH THOUSANDS OF PIGEONS DEFECATING ALL OVER EVERYTHING? Phelan: REALISTICALLY,
IT PROBABLY IS 20 YEARS BEFORE WE’LL SEE THEM
IN THE WILD AGAIN. I’D LIKE TO SEE THAT HAPPEN
IN 15. BUT WE ALSO HAVE TO ALLOW
THE TIME. PEOPLE HAVE TO WANT
THIS PIGEON BACK. Narrator: BUT SKEPTICISM SEEMS
TO BE COMING FROM ALL CORNERS, EVEN FROM WITHIN THE TEAM
WORKING WITH BEN NOVAK. THOUGH HIS BOSS
AT THE UNIVERSITY IS RESEARCHING WHY PASSENGER
PIGEONS BECAME SO ABUNDANT, SHE DOESN’T THINK IT’S
A GOOD IDEA TO BRING THEM BACK. Shapiro:
WHY THE PASSENGER PIGEON? WHY DO YOU WANT TO BRING THIS
BIRD BACK AND NOT SOMETHING ELSE, NOT SOMETHING
THAT IS LESS ANNOYING? Novak: ANNOYING?
WELL, THAT’S THE MISCONCEPTION. Shapiro: HOW IS A BILLION BIRDS
FLYING OVERHEAD A MISCONCEPTION
ABOUT ANNOYING-NESS? WE KNOW THAT THEY EXISTED
IN THE BILLIONS. Novak: YES. THE NEW POPULATION
DOESN’T NECESSARILY HAVE TO BE A HUGE POPULATION. IT CAN BE
A SMALLER POPULATION OF BIRDS, LIVING A LOT MORE LIKE
BAND-TAILED PIGEONS AND SERVING THEIR
ECOLOGICAL ROLE IN THE EAST. Shapiro: WHY NOT SOMETHING THAT IS GOING TO FILL A ROLE,
FOR EXAMPLE, THAT MIGHT HELP OTHER SPECIES,
LIKE THE MAMMOTH, FOR EXAMPLE? THERE’S A PLACE WHERE YOU COULD
PUT THEM — IN THE ARCTIC — WHERE THEY MIGHT ACTUALLY HELP
TO REINVIGORATE THE ENVIRONMENT. THE PASSENGER PIGEON
WOULD NOT FILL A NICHE THAT’S BEEN VACATED. IT WOULD MAKE ITSELF A NUISANCE. SO I’M UNCONVINCED. Novak: THE PASSENGER PIGEON
CAN COME IN AND PLAY AN ELEMENT IN SHAPING THE TYPES OF TREES
THAT BECOME SUCCESSFUL, AND THAT’S THE ROLE THAT I SEE THE PASSENGER PIGEON
COMING BACK TO PLAY. Narrator: WHILE THE
PASSENGER PIGEON MIGHT ONE DAY HELP RESTORE THE FOREST
BY SPREADING SEEDS AROUND, SCIENTISTS HAVE EVEN BIGGER
PLANS FOR THE WOOLLY MAMMOTH. GEORGE CHURCH IS ENGINEERING
ELEPHANT CELLS WITH GENES THAT WOULD GIVE THEM
THICK FUR AND A FATTY LAYER. HIS HOPE
IS THAT THESE NEW MAMMOTHS COULD HELP KEEP THE ARCTIC
FROM MELTING. SCIENTISTS BELIEVE THAT GRAZING
BY HERBIVORES LIKE MAMMOTHS STRENGTHENED THE GRASS THAT GREW
ON TOP OF THE PERMAFROST AND PROTECTED IT FROM THE SUN. George: THE MAMMOTHS
MAY HAVE HAD A BIG ROLE IN MAINTAINING THE GRASS
THAT STABILIZED THE ICE, WHICH CONTAINS
MORE CARBON IN IT, AS IN GLOBAL-WARMING CARBON, THAN ALL OF THE RAINFORESTS
PUT TOGETHER TIMES TWO. Patton: HOW MANY WOOLLY MAMMOTHS
WOULD YOU HAVE TO HAVE COURSING ACROSS SIBERIA — SIBERIA’S NOT EXACTLY
A SMALL PLACE, YOU KNOW — TO HAVE
THAT KIND OF GLOBAL IMPACT TO KEEP THE PERMAFROST
FROM MELTING? Narrator: EVEN SCIENTISTS
SKEPTICAL OF DE-EXTINCTION BELIEVE
THAT ANY TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPED TO BRING BACK EXTINCT SPECIES COULD BE USEFUL
TO HELP ENDANGERED SPECIES. Shapiro: THIS TECHNOLOGY
WILL BE TREMENDOUSLY USEFUL IN CONSERVATION BIOLOGY,
FOR EXAMPLE, TO RE-ENGINEER LOST DIVERSITY INTO POPULATIONS THAT HAVE
RECENTLY BECOME VERY, VERY SMALL AND ARE ON THE VERGE
OF EXTINCTION. Narrator:
THE NORTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO’S
SAFARI PARK IN ESCONDIDO, CALIFORNIA,
ARE SO ENDANGERED THAT THEY RISK ONE DAY
BEING ONLY ON THE PARK’S SIGN. Woman: RIGHT NOW,
SHE KIND OF PREFERS ALFALFA. WE USUALLY DON’T FEED THIS
TO OUR WHITE RHINOS. BUT SHE’S GERIATRIC, AND THERE’S NO NEED FOR HER
NOT TO HAVE HER FAVORITE FOOD. Narrator: THE SAN DIEGO ZOO’S
NOLA AND ANGIE ARE TWO OF ONLY SEVEN NORTHERN
WHITE RHINOS LEFT IN THE WORLD. POACHED FOR THEIR HORNS,
THE RHINOS ARE BELIEVED TO HAVE DISAPPEARED IN THE WILD
AROUND 2006. Ryder: THE LAST STRONGHOLD FOR THE NORTHERN WHITE RHINO
IN ITS NATURAL HABITAT WAS IN GARAMBA NATIONAL PARK IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
OF THE CONGO. THE CARETAKERS, THE RANGERS, THE PEOPLE WHO WERE PROTECTING
IT AND HAD BEEN STUDYING IT WERE THREATENED
AND TOLD TO LEAVE. Narrator: AT 40,
THE PARK’S TWO RHINOS HAVE ENDED
THEIR BABY-MAKING YEARS, AND IT’S ALSO UNLIKELY THAT THE OTHER FIVE
WILL REPRODUCE, EITHER. Ryder: WITHOUT SOME
EXTRAORDINARY INTERVENTION, NORTHERN WHITE RHINOS
ARE DOOMED. Narrator: THOSE
EXTRAORDINARY MEASURES BEGIN WITH RHINO CELLS STORED
AT MINUS-250 DEGREES AT THE SAN DIEGO ZOO’S
FROZEN ZOO. SCIENTISTS HAVE COLLECTED CELLS
FROM 12 NORTHERN WHITE RHINOS AND WOULD LIKE TO USE THEM
TO INCREASE THE POPULATION’S SIZE
AND GENETIC DIVERSITY. USING STEM-CELL TECHNIQUES, SCIENTISTS COULD PRODUCE
RHINO SPERM AND EGGS. THEY’D THEN JOIN THEM
THROUGH IN VITRO FERTILIZATION TO CREATE RHINO EMBRYOS. THE PLAN WOULD CALL
FOR A CLOSE RELATIVE, SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOS,
TO BE THE SURROGATE MOTHERS. THOSE RHINOS ARE THEMSELVES
ALSO ENDANGERED. Ryder: EACH OF THESE STEPS HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED
IN OTHER SPECIES. AND NOBODY HAS TRIED
TO DO THIS WITH THE RHINOS. AND IF NOBODY TRIES, FOR SURE,
THEY WILL BECOME EXTINCT. Narrator: CREATED IN THE 1970s
FOR GENERAL RESEARCH PURPOSES, THE FROZEN ZOO NOW HOLDS THE CELLS
OF 1,000 DIFFERENT SPECIES. ONE OF THEM, A HAWAIIAN BIRD,
HAS ALREADY GONE EXTINCT, AND A HANDFUL MORE
ARE ON THE BRINK. WITH THE RIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, THEIR STORED CELLS
COULD ONE DAY BECOME A LIFELINE. Ryder:
THE WONDERS OF LIFE ARE ENCODED IN THE DNA OF THE VIALS
FROM ARABIAN ORYX AND PYGMY HIPPOPOTAMUSES
AND BIGHORN SHEEP. THAT’S JUST
1 OF THE OVER 100 BOXES IN HERE. I SHOW THIS TO YOUNG SCIENTISTS WHO COME AND VISIT
AND WANT TO KNOW WHAT A SCIENTIST WORKING
ON GENETICS OF ENDANGERED SPECIES DOES. AND I CAN SAY,
“SOME DAY, YOU MAY BE ABLE TO WORK ON THESE SAMPLES BECAUSE
WE’VE TAKEN CARE OF THEM.” Announcer: SUPPORT FOR
“KQED SCIENCE” IS PROVIDED BY… SUPPORT IS ALSO PROVIDED
BY THE MEMBERS OF KQED.

97 thoughts on “Reawakening Extinct Species”

  1. why do they keep saying “ just because we can, should we?” Like yes bitch tf we want are animals back fr

  2. i think this is becoming quite significant following the death of sudan the last male northern white rhino, leaving the species scientifically extinct. (with two females left)

  3. Well, let's look at why we want to bring them back in the first place.

    Would it be beneficial to reintroduce species? Or could it disrupt ecosystems?

  4. Certain species need to remain extinct. While it may be cool to reanimated a smilodon, for example, there wouldn't be any benefit to it.
    It would be a good idea to extend the funds to save dying species now, like snow leopards, current macaw breeds, and even frogs.

  5. Love the video, but actually in Jurassic Park, none of the dinosaurs are actually cloned, at least not from actual dinosaurs. They are completely genetic material from animal baseplates that had been heavily modified. The cloned mosquito bug was the explanation they wanted to give, so that they could lie to the public about having "authentic" dinosaurs. The idea was that if they could fool a group of paleontologists, mathematicians, and paleobotanists, they could fool anyone.

  6. The Passenger Pigeon like the Dinosaurs and other animals that lived successfully were selected for extinction. And reviving one a species that were naturally selected for extinction is going against the book of Evolution.
    You've all heard from this documentary that Passenger Pigeons fell the skies over 5 billion of them causing a detriment to nature itself by destroying trees that collapsed under the masses that landed on them, which realistically not only effected human civilization, but the North American ecosystem. There numbers and lack of adaptation were the reason for their extinction. In comparison to now Passenger Pigeons have not been missed in the ecosystem, they served their purpose as a niche back in the Victorian days and none of the natural prey nor predators were harmed by this change much. The way it plays out resurrecting species that were naturally selected for extinction sum it up to being an extra resource, an attraction, or a natural disater, that is why locusts and cicadas haved evolved for long term hibernations, emerging once every decade which gives the ecosystem to recover and plenish other animals. Completely resurrecting just a few Passenger Pigeons would unbalance the ecosystem as we know today and since they been extinct over 100 years these Pigeons aren't prepared for this world and the world isn't prepared for them. At this point to out his to revive a Passenger Pigeon, Ben Novak is in living in a fantasy, he's doing nothing more than trying to fulfill his childhood dream as the man-child he is.

  7. that chick is dumb as hell. just cuz you dont like them aint a reason to not bring them back. WE killed off so many animals. We r the issue with the world. we should bringback animals that we killed off. we r the only animals that kill off other animals. its just sad. if anything that was as smart as us looked at what we have done n animals have done they would say we are the ones that need to be killed off.

  8. Okay, I understand some animals, but bringing back prehistoric animals like mammoths is a dumb idea. Since they had lived in the ice age and they would be overheated today. Can't we just leave the prehistoric animals extinct, they had their shot but nature selected them to be extinct.

  9. America: we now have the technology to bring back any extinct animal.

    Him: let’s bring back a fucking pigeon…

  10. Bring back the thylacine, the passenger pidgin, the Carolina parakeet, the northern white ibex and the quagga

  11. It seems we have a lot of scientists in the comment xD
    Jokes aside, there a lot of problems in cloning extinct species, but surely this pigeon would be a example reviving species

  12. If we bring them back and release them to the wild, just imagine how the food web/cycle would change.

  13. I would love to see the passenger pigeon alive. They were beautiful relatives of fan tails and rock doves.

  14. Well, they'd also have to find a way to get the bird to have the same kind of personality as the passenger pigeon, otherwise they're just cosmetically/functionally different.

  15. I don't know. Reviving evolutionary dead-ends won't benefit us – it may mess up everything, from food-chains to other species. Hundreds, if not thousands, of generations have raised their offspring, taught them what they know – bring in a woolly mammoth and an inexperienced animal – what would happen? And, if it was past human mistake, whose to say we won't try to make that mistake again?

  16. Our Planet is riddled with pollution. Sever Pollution. I truly get it. But the ones liningbbyour pockets are the ones who will hunt them. Get it? Cruel world.

  17. They are de-evolving chickens to make them look like their earlier ancestors, the velociraptors. They will have teeth, modified legs and feet, modified stomach (to eat meat and maybe plants), and they will have a long tail with feathers on the end. This will be called the chickenosaurus, and it will be coming in 5 or more years to life.

  18. As usual, these pink communist "scientists" bring up the hoax of "Global Warming". When are they going to stop lying? There has been no increase in temperature for the last 20 years, eventhough CO2 has increased exponentially. Explanation? They have NONE. Global Warming is a CULT. These people are so fucking stupid!

  19. Why not use the DNA from the mourning dove or the white-winged Dove they almost have the exact same body type

  20. Bringing back a flock that blocked the sun is asking for an avian flu that will end humanity. In reality, earth would be better off without us. We cause major problems. The rest of nature is cannibalistic, we've taken ourselves out of the chain.Because we aren't eaten in the chain, we are overpopulating and making severe imbalances,and polluting. No other creature(haven't actually researched) pollutes their habitat.An octopus or a squid will automatically jump right on your head and try to eat you. That is nature, if nature was allowed to run its course, we as humans would be near extinction.But we would still survive to continue to poison the world. If We lived naturally there wouldn't be a problem, we use technologies to live in a fancy comfortable way. It's all unnecessary.

  21. Humans are a virus unlike any known…we will continue to destroy this ecosystem bc it is in our DNA… we destroy all natural resources and leave nothing in return…that’s a virus! I am tired of seeing animals go extinct…when will we go extinct?

  22. 24:09
    Sorry but the whole notion of using stem cells to create sperm cells was a myth and has been scientifically debunked. The vague looking sickly sperm cells created from stem cells years ago by scientists proved to simply not work and couldn't fertilise an egg. The pathetic mainstream media like usual jumped all over it though, and sensationalised the hell out of it.
    I think in the future (400 years time), it may be possible for a woman to have stem cells taken and have then altered into sperm cells, and then donate these to another woman to have a daughter. I think eventually this will be possible once it's perfected. But you never can use a female stem cell to create a male sex chromosome gamete, it just isn't physically possible.
    Most of these shows are speculative and deal in "what if" most of the time. Like most mainstream media, they are half way between real science and Hollywood fantasy.

  23. There is no evidence what so ever that climate is changing other than by natural, continuing processes. If the scientists here state that as if it is fact then their science is flawed and everything else they state here has to be in question !

  24. I like the irony that they say we can't bring back dinosaurs just while talking about bringing back the passenger pigeon (A dinosaur)

  25. "if we have the resources to preserve what we already have i think that's where we should put the ressources" As if we can't work on both protecting extant animals AND de extinction, as if these two weren't two completely different domains of biology, but sure dude, you do you.

  26. See the biggest predator on earth is humans we have in the short time of "evolved humans" killed of aver 50% of the earth and it's flora and fauna already all through wasteful living building concrete buildings and tearing down the natural environment to do so
    Humans naturally were migratory animals
    We didn't stay in one place for too long therefore giving areas we had been a chance to regrow and reset, now we live permanently in an area for generations upon generations
    But now another factor is the earth is overpopulated so migrating is not really an option because the earth isn't going to have a chance to reset itself humans haven't kept track of population numbers so we have a passenger pigeon situation where we are all over the place trashing everything just think the Amazon forest is half its original size now because of the high demand for wood the Amazon forest is the lungs of the earth we are slowly suffocating ourselves and we live in too much ignorance to realise and unfortunately humans have lost most of the skills required to live as we should so we are now forced to live as we do in this day an age 🙁

  27. The Passenger pigeon is going to be the most ecological important species to be resurrected. It will bring the American White oak back to prominence in the Northeast Forrest of the USA.

  28. Funny how science lies because they've been finding tissue DNA and dinosaur bones and the woman who discovered it was shut down by the Science World discredited funny how the LIE is work for them

  29. Wow that's closed minded saying we will NEVER be able to bring Dinosaurs back. She clearly isn't capable of thinking outside the box. She probably can't even image 100 years into our future let alone 10,000. or more. Eventually we will sequence every living organism on the planet's entire genome from scratch. After that we will piece together every possible genome from preserved DNA, going back 100K years or more. By this time we will have an incredible understanding of DNA and genomes. We will be adept at using advanced editing technology to improve our own DNA, to splice from other species to give us new traits, and to author our own additions to our DNA, and to Author new species. At this point we will take everything we know about DNA and dinosaurs and we will use Artificial Intelligence and augmented humans to author the entire genome of a dinosaur like T-Rex. We will design it to look and function just as we figure the real thing did, and we will grow it in an artificial womb or egg, until there are enough adult females to start them reproducing naturally in a Jurassic Park(which could be on earth or off world, or in a O'Neill cylinder in orbit designed to mimic its original environment.

  30. First, GUANO IS LIFE and anyone who knows anything about farming will confirm that. The wooly mammoths died out by themselves, second, logic has its limits and one should never make such decisions based on a single line quasi logical argument. there are too many variables, and hidden information, and chaotic patterns of causality. Only an intuitive action can bring positive results, action arising from a decision made through a synthetic process, confirmed not only by the limited mind but by heart and spirit, like bringing back the passenger pigeon, which has been eradicated by blind mistake. This will correct the wrong that has happened, and maybe prevent the American soil from erosion from overfarming which is currently turning it into a desert. One cannot possibly imagine the implications of such actions, and that is why scientists shoul always be humble when using their limited tools for analysis, and look beyong logic and what they can or cannot imagine. We should bring the passenger pigeon back, because it had a function in the ecosystem, even if we can't fathom what it was. But in my opinion, creating a virgin egg cell would be probably a simpler and faster way of bringing this about, than recreating the species by genetically engineering another. I hope it works and we can see those magnificent birds with our own eyes again.

  31. Did they just say climate change? Really? According to the scientist. I’m suppose to be living 20 feet under water 5years ago?? YEA! Climate change…

  32. The mentality of humans is frightening. The woman in this video proves that man is not a rational animal, but a rationalizing animal. She has the balls to say that passenger pigeons would be a nuisance after we wiped them out by the billions … who is the nuisance? Man the greatest invasive species ever to hit the planet. The good news is that man will likely only be here one one hundred thousandth of the time the planet has left so there will be plenty of time for billion bird flocks.

  33. What could possibly go wrong? It's a truism about de-extinction efforts that scientists agree that bringing back a completely identical species would be impossible; anything would be a hybridized version. It's also true that reviving extinct species means that they're introduced species: they are being introduced into an ecological system that's almost certainly very different than the one that existed before they went extinct. Many complex issues are ignored in this video.

  34. Even if they succeed the Gene Pool will not be large enough. Interbreeding of however many they can get wil just be victims to damaging recessive genes. Just like our pet dogs whom we have interbred into very near corruption.

  35. Yes animals that went extinct because of human beings greed and stupidity should have a second chance at their species being brought back..

  36. It's horrible what mankind has done to many different species of animals. We have made far too many of natures creatures go extinct and it's a shame. With that said, perhaps there are other animals we have made extinct that would not possibly require extremely large (flocks) numbers of, or that may be of more assistance to nature itself. It would be great if we could undo all of the destruction that we have created but I tend to agree with the woman, (20:10) the supervisor at the university. This may not be the right animal to invest so much money and time and effort into, only for it to possibly need billions more to survive or to quite possibly just be considered a huge nuisance and have people wishing they were still extinct. I wish them all the best, they have wonderful intentions and are delving into territory that may very well help save mankind someday. God Bless.
    Save The Tigers…………..PLEASE !!!!!

  37. Here's a thought. The green sea turtles are no longer endangered in Florida. Saving such animals is hardly different from bringing back a species which has already fallen over the edge.

  38. All this worry about "What if the passenger pigeons come back in their thousand and their millions? How shall we cope?" …. What a stupid question. We managed did we not, to kill off 5 billion of this species? How can we lose faith in our own deadly skills as god's own acme of creation? If we could exterminate hundreds of millions of bison or buffalo which once roamed the prairies from horizon to horizon, and shoot down the passenger pigeon so dead birds rained down from the sky, what will be a few thousand gracing the woods again? And don't forget our poor farmers who own hundreds of thousands of acres for cattle breeding and who are keepers of their stake in the powerful meat industry, how can you not trust them to make sure that they will lobby for control of these pests to protect their economic interests? We ask the same question about the woolly mammoth , and of the Tasmanian tiger, and of the Dodo as well. Please do not worry. We can shoot them out of existence if they get out of control again. Have some faith.

  39. To everyone that thinks we shouldn't bring back extinct species, just preserve still existing species, working on de-extintion helps preserving living species. For an example, the scientists working on bringing back the mammoths accidentally discovered an herpes related decease that is killing modern elephant calves, and have now developed a vaccine, thus helping saving lives of that endangered species.

  40. De-Extinction is a concept similar to The Slave Reparation Concept in 1 way…

    Neither will EVER happen.

    GUARANTEED.

    UNFILTERED UNAPOLOGETIC TRUTH 🇺🇸

  41. I can just see the next Dr. Who episode, where a breeding pair of the knewly reawakened Passenger Pidgeons boards the tardis, is taken back in time, and ACTUALLY ARE the original passenger pidgeon breeding pair!

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