Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology


Schizo means split, and phrenia, in this case
refers to the mind. Even though schizophrenia can be interpreted to mean “splitting of
the mind”, it does not refer to a split personality, like some media sources might
portray, but rather schizophrenia describes a scattered or fragmented pattern of thinking.
Schizophrenia’s actually a syndrome, meaning there’re all sorts of symptoms that might
be associated with it and different patients might experience different symptoms, although
the symptoms can be broadly categorized into three major areas: positive symptoms, negative
symptoms, and cognitive symptoms. Alright taking a step back, most human symptoms
from any illness are extreme versions of a normal physiologic process (for example everyone
has a heartbeat and tachycardia is a fast heartbeat, everyone has a normal body temperature,
but during a fever that temperature is higher). In schizophrenia, patients have positive symptoms
which aren’t positive in the sense that they’re helpful, but positive in the sense
that they’re some new feature that doesn’t have some “normal” or physiologic counterpart.
These are the psychotic symptoms, so delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and disorganized
or catatonic behavior; none of which occur physiologically. Delusions are false beliefs that the patient
might feel very strongly about, so much so that they won’t change their mind, even
if you give them evidence against it. There are all sorts of different delusions, like,
for example, a delusion of control, where somebody thinks that some outside force or
person or thing is controlling their actions. They could also be delusions of reference,
where someone might think that insignificant remarks are directed at them, like a newscaster
is speaking directly to them through the TV. Hallucinations are a second type of positive
symptom, and can be any kind of sensation that’s not actually there, including visual
but also including auditory sensations, like hearing voices or commands. A third type is
disorganized speech An example being something like a “word salad”, which seems like
just a random jumbling of words or phrases, like “pencil dog hat coffee blue”. Disorganized
behavior on the other hand could be like if they exhibit bizarre or silly behavior that’s
out of context and doesn’t seem to have much of a purpose, like for example wearing
multiple layers of jackets on a hot summer day. Also sometimes the behavior is described
as “catatonic”, which has to do with their movements, posture, and responsiveness. So
like they might be super resistant to moving, or be in an unresponsive stupor. Negative symptoms, are like when there’s
this reduction or removal of normal processes, and this is like a decrease in emotions they
can express, or a loss of interest in things they once found interesting. One type of a
negative symptom is called flat affect, where they don’t respond with an emotion or reaction
that would seem appropriate, like if they saw something very unexpected like a small
monkey playing in their living room, they might simply sit and watch idly as if nothing
was happening. Another type is alogia, or poverty of speech, which is a lack of content
in speech, so like if somebody asked them “do you have any children?”, they might
respond with “yes”, instead of “yes, one boy and two girls”. A third type of
negative symptom is avolition, which is this decrease in motivation to complete certain
goals, so someone might stay at home for long periods of time, without trying to reach out
to friends or find work. Cognitive symptoms include things like not
being able to remember things, learn new things, or understand others easily. These symptoms
are more subtle though, and more difficult to notice and might only be detected if they
have really specific tests performed. An example might be somebody not being able to keep track
of several things at once, like a phone number and an address. People with schizophrenia seem to cycle through
three phases, typically in order. During the prodromal phase, patients might become withdrawn
and spend most of their time alone, and often this seems similar to other mental disorders
like depression or anxiety disorders. During the active phase, patients experience more
severe symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior,
or catatonic behavior. Following an active phase, patients often enter into a residual
phase, where they might exhibit cognitive symptoms like not being able to concentrate
or becoming withdrawn again, as with the prodromal phase. For an official diagnosis of schizophrenia,
patients need to be diagnosed with two of the following symptoms—Delusions, hallucinations,
disorganized speech, disorganized behavior or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms,
and at least one of them has to be either delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized
speech, So basically they couldn’t have just disorganized behavior and negative symptoms.
Even though some patients have cognitive symptoms as well, they aren’t specifically needed
for a diagnosis. Also though, for a diagnosis, signs of these disturbances must be ongoing
for at least 6 months, meaning they’re likely in one phase or another for 6 months, but
there must be at least one month of active-phase symptoms. And finally, those symptoms can’t
be attributable to another condition, like substance abuse. Now that we’ve diagnosed it…why does it
even happen in the first place? What causes schizophrenia? Well we don’t really know,
since it seems like the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia are pretty unique to humans,
or at least they’re hard to imagine or notice in animal models like mice or rats. One clue
is that the majority of antipsychotic medications that improve schizophrenia symptoms block
the dopamine receptor D2, which reduces dopamine levels in neurons. This suggests that maybe
schizophrenia has something to do with increased levels of dopamine. These medications, though,
are neither universally nor completely effective, and don’t work for everyone with schizophrenia,
which adds to the confusion and means there’s probably more to it than just the D2 receptors.
Interestingly, one of the most effective antipsychotic drugs, clozapine, is a weak D2 antagonist,
suggesting that other neurotransmitter systems like norepinephrine, serotonin, and GABA are
involved. Twin studies have shown support for a genetic basis as well, even though there
haven’t been any specific genes conclusively linked to schizophrenia yet. Also, environmental
factors, like early or prenatal exposure to infection, and certain autoimmune disorders
like celiac disease have been linked with schizophrenia. Finally, another important
set of clues involves the epidemiology, schizophrenia seems to happen slightly more in men than
women, with onset in the mid-twenties for men but late-twenties for women; and the clinical
signs of schizophrenia are often less severe. Some studies suggest this difference might
be due to an estrogen regulation of dopamine systems. There doesn’t, however, seem to
be any differences among race. Now treating schizophrenia can be really tricky,
and antipsychotic medications are often used, but it’s super important to combine the
efforts of several clinicians and health professionals, including professionals in therapy or counseling,
medicine, and psychopharmacology. Antipsychotics can be very effective at reducing symptoms,
but they often come a lot of additional considerations to keep in mind, like cost and the potential
for unwanted side effects like tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal.

100 thoughts on “Schizophrenia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology”

  1. I’m 15 right now and I have imaginary friends in my head, there’s 5 of them at the moment, I had more but they left and never came back. I know their names and what they look like, I can physically see them in my head and they are always talking to me and each other. One of them keeps trying to take over my body and mind because she thinks I’m not fit for my own body or something. They have always been there in my head since I was a child but only recently about a year ago i found out who they are (like their names and stuff). They aren’t bad people, they don’t say bad things at all, they are just friends that talk to me. It’s hard to explain, idk if it’s schizophrenia or not I’ve never told anyone so I’ve never been diagnosed or anything.

  2. I’ve heard God. I also hear demons on a daily basis, who tell me to kill myself. Her name is Lisa. She is evil. I once communicated with my dead nan in a dream.

    Soooo… that ain’t normal…?

    okay

  3. I was talking to my therapist that the voices I hear are different emotions funny serg sad serg mad serg happy serg and more serg but the causes could be something about aliens I think we just use most of our brain more than other at least

  4. My aunt just died last month so I just knew about now of her early death. She was only 46 and suffered her whole life having schizophrenia eversince she was 16 because of domestic abuse eversince she was a child. I kind of relate to her bad experiences since I also experienced and was used to diagnosed with acute depression when I was 13 it took me long to recover because of the mood swings I have been experiencing. Seeing my aunt being delusional all her life she suffered quite alot of seeing dead people of our relatives who she thinks are speaking something towards her. She would cry in the middle of the night how a black shadow appeared who try to seduce her at that time we were very poor and can't buy enough of her medicines. Now she passed away because she was overdosed with her pills and medicines she's been taking all her life. Died from cardiac arrest at the age of 46. She used to say to me and my cousins that her soul is dead already and she's already in heaven. I was quite confused but her schizophrenia and her delusions never brought her back to the real world. Remember that.. "Don't let the emotions get through your head keep it a balance paced and get over with it no matter what. Fight it and never make it win." My aunt did her part even though she was schizophrenic she was still able to give a good advice before she died. I wish some of you will learn all of that don't let the demons destroy your mental delusions let it flow like the wind and pass it by as it nothing happened. Take a deep breath and to know that everything's going to be alright no matter what.

  5. Candida may add to this problem. I had bad candida for many years it caused me bad anxiety and depression, but what was really strange is that i kept on hearing the same song play over and over again in my head most of the day but all night long too, strange. I also kept getting words mainly negative swear words pop into my head that i was not thinking.

    Anyway i went on candida diet along with antifungals and after one month the songs and odd words popping up stopped, this defo has an impact on your mental health. I decided to look more into this and this is what i found. Many patients with schizophrenia also had high levels of candida present!

    Candida is a fungus that overgrows when too stressed and eat too many bad foods like sugar, white starchy foods like pasta and potatoes and dairy too. Many people say too many antibiotics and even cancer drugs add to this because they kill off too much good bacteria needed to keep the immune system healthy. A healthy immune system is the key to good health keeping bad illnesses away. Many companies put antibiotics and hormones into meat that goes against us. i always eat organic or free-range meat now, or stick to fish.

    Candida cause Hypothyroidism Type 2 also called Reverse T3, this is when your T4 hormone stops converting into T3 hormone and produces a dud from called Reverse t3, i also had this as my zinc and selenium levels got low because candida stopped my vitamins being absorbed in the gut. Zinc and selenium helps in the conversion of hormones.

    If you have symptoms of Under Active Thyroid also called Hypothyroidism Typ1 but with negative results, you may have type 2. You can purchase a book called Hypothyroidism Type 2 The Epidemic written by Dr Mark Starr , he diagnosed this condition as he was a sufferer himself.

    Symptoms of candida are: 24 hr fatigue, bad anxiety or depression. intolerance to dairy or gluten, bad breath, white coating on the tongue, acne, skin rashes and sleep problems, leaky gut.

    To test yourself look for the candida spit test on youtube. If you have this, type in candida on youtube and look for a picture with 2 tongues on it. I posted a diet plan along with antifungals i used to kill mine, under Eifion Phillips.

    Hope you all get well,

    Merry Christmas!

  6. Schizophrenia is not a disease … It is another form of GENIUS…Like the raitonal genius is into numbers , and what we call logic.The so called schizophrenic is into everything sensitive and "supernatural " …The only problem about " Schizophrenia " is that the people , many of them , cannot handle it , cause they are too weak to handle themselves and the trippy nature of existance : -)

  7. This video makes the mistake of saying that there are no genes definitively linked to schizophrenia yet. There have been multiple studies confirming the role of certain alleles of complement component 4 (CC4) in the disease. Not just by genetic association in populations (i.e. via GWAS) but mechanistically by showing that CC4 plays a role in neural synapse pruning during adolescent development. The original finding came out of Harvard Medical School from my old genetics professor Steven McCarroll.

  8. Is demonic possession and schizophrenia are same??
    Please help
    One of my family member is having problem of demonic possession.
    What is the solution for it.?

  9. Please OSMOSIS can u please upload a video bout testicular tumors asap(this week if possible) .
    I have an exam and your videos help me a lot.

  10. People saying Psych Drugs are evil are 100% right. Those who defend
    usage of drugs are the same as those who defended the Nazi Murder of my
    Family in the German Death Camps.I hope you understand where these drugs
    came from. T4 Euthanasia Program, Nazi German effort—framed as a
    euthanasia program—to kill incurably ill, physically or mentally
    disabled,Action T-4.
    You are therefore without excuse if you justify torture of Tardive pain,
    I am 70 years old with tardives, they took me off meds in 2000, but the
    tardives do not stop, and even w/o drugs they keep on getting more
    worster every day, vey day worster daily I suffer every day & every
    night all a day all a night twist and jerk.

  11. I have schizophrenia. I’ll tell you right now that when it starts you don’t think much of it. I’ve spent my whole life in deep depression so when it started I thought I was having another depression bout. But then the extreme delusions started. And then the hallucinations. I still thought maybe it was just depression. Eventually everything got so bad that I went to my doctor and she got me into a psych hospital for part time hospitalization. It’s scary but WE ARE NORMAL PEOOLE WITH FEELINGS. WE ARE NOT LIKE HOW THE MEDIA PORTRAYS. IF YOU THINK YOU MIGHT HAVE SCHIZOPHRENIA OR A SYNDROME RELATING TO IT SEE YOUR DOCTOR ASAP. THEY WILL HELP YOU WITH NO JUDGEMENT

  12. My mom has schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. She's had it all my life. And it is hard to know what she's went through, and seeing videos about what its like, and seeing this, and knowing that I've seen her go through all of this. But I guess a fucked up life is just a fucked up life

  13. IAM unable to join osmosis even though IAM entering correct number of my atm it's not accepting plzz help me

  14. the fact that its cause is unknown tells me its demonic pray in the name of Jesus and see what happens you have nothing to lose

  15. Hello.. Please could you upload a vedio about concentration-effects curve & receptor binding of agonist .. And one more bout spare receptor . The both topic in pharmacology.

  16. I had a therapist before that was going to run tests to test me for schizophrenia because of many of these symptoms but I ended up stopping seeing her because I didn't have time and neither did she and I just havent gone back, been almost a year since my last visit and originally the calming techniques she showed me to quiet and shut out the hallucinations and to realize what's real and what's not were helping but now I cant sleep properly because they keep waking me up. All my symptoms are getting worse, especially since the memories of something that happened 3 years ago came back, she diagnosed me with PTSD from that but now the memories have started being incorporated into my hallucinations. Once I turn 18 in September I am going to properly see a therapist.

  17. I know self diagnosing is bad but I think I'm schitzoprenic
    I do have SERIOUS delusions
    I do hear voices (I remember once the voice told me to kill my cat (twice) but I resisted because I love her and I would never kill her)
    I lost interest in drawing (I used to draw a lot)
    Inappropriate response (it happens to me sometimes but idk why)
    Alogia (I was cleaning up the sink after washing all the dishes and I told my brother not to wash anything in there and then my mom yelled at me and said that I didn't explain everything to him and I got mad and had to tell him again "Don't wash anything in there because I'm not finished cleaning it up")
    Removal of normal process
    (Sometimes I feel like an outcast because I don't express my emotions often in front of people)
    Understanding
    (I feel like when someone explaining me something i don't fully understand them and I decide not to bother them because of my "stupidity")
    I'm in active phase right now
    I experience delusions
    Disorganized speech
    Disorganized behavior and sometimes I become withdrawn

    But to be honest I think I found someone who's suffering from the same illness as me
    I met that girl at the camp and we became best friends (just because we thought we are on some kind of multiverse mission to find other people like us….. I feel dumb writing it down) and she does hear voices too! Two voices in fact
    But the voices are kind to her my voice in my head is nice but sometimes…. It tells me to do awful things….
    Anyway I'll try to talk to her next time I'll see her (this Thursday)

    Edit: I didn't get to talk to her, because her mother didn't allow her to hangout with me.

  18. Click-bait: He is quite good EXCEPT fails to present the cause(s) of S promised, which is all I came here for. Booh.

  19. Someone I know has schizophrenia. I assume the cause of it is a form of neglect from a person they love, because the person I know hears voices and used to see things I'm also assuming it might be because of them thinking they can't say anything or have no choice in any matter. Just my thoughts though.

  20. I think the cause of schizophrenia could be atypical environmental influences (abuse, abandonment) from childhood causing abnormal neurotransmitter functions and neuron formation.
    These things happening over years in a person who is already genetically susceptible (maybe due to a genetic cause of neurotransmitter and neuron function imbalance)

    And then something triggers an acute change

  21. First, let's talk about correcting the social constructs ( which we cannot) then try analysing mental health..

  22. Who is schizophrenic please tell me which medication do you take?
    I’m just interested
    I take aripiprazole and chlorprothixene

  23. Please make a video on "how to take history" …. I'm damn sure this will be helpfull for many medical students….

  24. I wear cold chlothes in summer and hot in winter and I jump a lot if some one talks to me loudly I want to go outside but some voices tell me not to go and some tell me to go and get hit by a car and I'm so confused…

  25. I had severe depression that went untreated for a few months and then I started getting psychotic thoughts… I believed the hospital was full of actors and they were all plotting against me. I thought it was all a plot from the state administration, I also believed they took all my personal data and used it against me. It was pretty horrible as I fully believed my thoughts even though it didn't make any sense, in my head it was all true, it all made complete sense. They gave me antipsychotics (olanzapine) and the delusion disappeared.

  26. The newest studies on this show that some (maybe all) schizophrenia can be caused by your autoimmune system. Much has been studied in the last few years and every year new antibodies are being discovered. Sometimes this behavior starts after an illness, sometimes even something like a bad cold or a virus.
    There is a very good test now to check for the antibodies that can cause this and autoimmune encephalitis too. The test everyone with this diseases should have are an autoimmune test that any doctor can order at a local lab but then the test is sent to Mayo Clinic in Rochester MN. It will check you for all the known antibodies that can cause autoimmune encephalopathy.
    So much schizophrenia starts the same way as AE and many times autoimmune encephalitis is misdiagnosed for years as schizophrenia or depression. It is worth getting the blood test to find out!

  27. Bless this channel. I'm so glad I can take some notes before my first year of psych in September 👌🏻

  28. I have all the symptoms in this vid except seeing stuff and hearing voices does that mean i have schizophrenia or something else?

  29. this is the best and most concise video i've watched on psychopathology!! thanks so much! looking forward to using your other videos to brush up on my learning!

  30. For 2 years i've been having some crazy ass beliefs (Thinking i have powers, thinking that people are going to harm me, thinking that people are planting thoughts into my head so i avoided talking to people). I've heard things before but i don't really get auditory hallucinations that often. I'm not sure whether to say i have paranoid schizophrenia or just a paranoid personality disorder. I am 13 so i'm guessing it would be highly unlikely for me to have schizophrenia but the symptoms are getting worse and all the "delusions and hallucinations" are actually feeling very real.

    When i was in year 6, i began to feel extremely paranoid that my friend could read my mind, so i tried my best to not think of anything but thoughts would always rush in my head. Then depression hit hard, which caused me not to do many things, couple months after that i then i first watched the film "Matilda" (if you don't know what that film is, basically it's about a girl who has telekinetic powers) i then had a VERY strong belief that i had the exact same powers, i would stare at objects in my room for a while and try make them move but they didn't. I started to doubt "my powers" and then eventually after months convincing myself i did have the powers, i didn't believe i had them anymore (like someone took them away from me). Because i got really depressed in year 6, i would hit/punch my head hard until i feel dizzy or have a really bad headache which (i think) made things worse. When i finally entered year 7, everything toned down a bit. I wasn't as paranoid as i were in year 6 however, now that i do think back on it, i did actually see people (more shadow like figures) a couple of times. Nothing really major happened in year 7 though, sometimes i would hear things but i just assumed it was someone or something outside. I was then home schooled for my Anxiety because it had gotten to the point where i would be scared to enter a classroom without thinking that the teachers would pick on me or others will judge me, i would have panic attacks often ect. AS SOON AS i was home schooled, everything fell apart. I always felt like someone was watching me; like a pair of eyes. I started to believe i had powers again, i always felt like someone was gonna harm me (the creature who lives in the back of my mind), i wouldn't really pay attention to my hygiene or say i can't wash because someone is always watching me (this affected me A LOT. I wouldn't go outside, get dressed, take a shower). I would lose motivation all the time even when i don't feel depressed and i'm happy. I kept in touch with my friends but then i suddenly started to withdraw myself from them. Sometimes i would start doing the washing up but then stop because i can't finish it (lack of motivation, not laziness! Feels different). That went on until year 8. Year 8 is and would be for a VERY long time, the worst year. On my birthday i heard someone shout my name (this was around 12:48am, i definitely wasn't tired) and it sounded like my sisters voice, i turned around really confused and scared. On Halloween (we were trick or treating), i heard someone shout my name again but this time it was a males voice (didn't sound like my brother nor my dad) i turned around confused. Whenever i was downstairs, I would see shadows of people and immediately i knew they were trying to hurt me, that caused me to not sleep at night. I started not to trust my family (Sister, brother, dad and my mum's bf) because i thought they were going to kill me. I would always have unwanted, disturbing very detailed thoughts of them killing me; it felt like someone was putting those thoughts inside my head. A couple of months ago (2), i heard voices but it wasn't the same… it was like 20 different voices whispering in my ear, though i couldn't make out what they were saying. My guess is that they were trying to tell me something important; it lasted for around 3 minutes. I kept telling it to shut up but it didn't, this happened just before i was gonna go to sleep so it was silent until the voices came. I keep seeing things at the corner of my eye, like some sort of tall shadow like creature. I don't feel safe in my house anymore and am always thinking that my siblings or my mum's bf will kill me.

    Everything i said constantly affects me and disrupts my daily life, i am confused as to whether this is just very bad paranoia or whether it's something worse.

  31. Dr. Cameron developed the criteria for schizophrenia in the final version of M.S.D.S. Dr. Cameron was also involved in Mk ultra mind experiments….there is something more covert and having a much more vast of an influence over the functionality of neurology of emotional frequency than what has been taught on the surface by our institutions which maintain a neglectful unreasonable devaluation of altereded states of consciousness… So, if I am saying things that don't fall into your reality bubble, you can conveniently categorize them as symptoms of schizophrenia, …take a deeper look into our currupt toxic environment before we devalue the individual

  32. It’s all part of the 3 the 6 and the 9 osmosis and oasis work together it’s not in my head. It’s real and every one will never believe me

  33. hey everybody. who of you has negative symptoms and what medication helped you? my biggest problem is alogia and it doesnt get better =(

  34. It’s scary how too little dopamine can be associated with Parkinson’s and too much can cause schizophrenia.

  35. i truly believe that schizophrenia is on the rise, adhd and austism, because the world and the system are shaping our minds , and those who are judging and treating the scizophreniacs and mentally ill are so delusional in their own mind, where they have no answers ,and youare not really cared for you are just amad person, because as much as youtry to be positive you know that success is also a delusion and normality is an illusion,

  36. You do not need to worry if you talk to yourself. But if you answer yourself you know you are in trouble!

  37. To be healed of ANYTHING, drink at least eight cups of water per day and cut the sugar out. If you're sick with ANYTHING, it means you don't drink enough water. Taper off your medicine SLOWLY. JESUS LOVES YOU.

  38. I've been having nearly all the symptoms for a long time now and when I talked to my psychotherapist she said that schizophrenia is extremely rare and that there's no chance of me having it.

  39. I came across this video because I’ve been feeling things that I couldn’t understand just now. It’s like I’m imagining things that are very hard to tell. This never happened to me before. I was listening to a music and suddenly I thought of something unexplainable and very mixed. I ran to my room and lied down in my bed and I felt calm. Later on, I was watching a video here in youtube and suddenly I’m like trying to remember something I couldn’t understand. And it had no connection to the video at all. I also found myself suddenly trying to remember dreams I couldn’t 🙁 I’m not even sure if all of it were my dreams 🙁

  40. I think I have schizophrenia too. But it's not that severe, I only worry because I experience panic attacks often.

  41. I take anti pyscotics not for schizophrenia and they are pretty good at making u brain dead while taking them

  42. We have two minds, left and right brain, since somebody tried to force hand use. Therefore it's problem with brains connection between hemispheres. It's something that can be cured by inducing hemisphere communication. Maybe some disorganized speech patterns means just that speech is organized in way psychiatrist doesn't understand. Maybe some of this sensations schizophrenics have are real… In fact wearing hoodie in summer have it's meaning, you don't get burned by the sun and you can wear headcover nobody can steal.

  43. This symptoms are caused by substances. Poisions. Even the stuff psychiatrist will give you as "helpfull" substance. Doctor causes schizophrenia, it's obvious.

  44. Schizophrenia sounds like something I would make up if I wanted to convince someone that committed a crime; that they actually committed another crime

  45. weak video. this is supposed to be for med students and related sciences, therefore too little neuroscience and pathophysiology
    you mention clozapine and then go on to talk about D2 which first of all is wrong. Clozapine has no effect on D2, but D4 instead. Also more important it has a high affinity for 5-HT2A serotonine receptors, and that brings us to the serotonine theory of schizophrenia.
    all in all crappy video, too little real academic information

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