SciEdwardsMMS Instant Replay: Protists, Archaea, and Bacteria

SciEdwardsMMS Instant Replay: Protists, Archaea, and Bacteria



alright folks let's go over what you need to study for our assessment on protists archaea and bacteria from last unit you might find our classification chart with a Venn diagrams to be a helpful place to start in terms of comparing and contrasting these kingdoms and knowing some of their most basic defining characteristics from this unit you have your foldable with bacteria facts on the front and our que effect on the back you have your protist foldable and if you were in class on the review day you've got your bacteria archaea and protists round robin review sheet and as always you've got your glossary additional resources are available on my Phoenix page simply log in and click on the tab what do I need to study to find full versions of our class presentations and blank foldables should you need to print out some more you can also find your co-op stories there should you need to print out a new copy review games and other helpful links are posted under the tab review games and you can find the link for this and other videos under the tab is ease videos so let's start with bacteria bacteria are a kingdom in the domain bacteria they are prokaryotic meaning that their cells do not have a nucleus and do not have membrane bound organelles and they are always unicellular meaning that they consist of only one cell depending on the species bacteria can be heterotrophic meaning that they must consume other organisms for energy or autotrophic meaning that they can produce their own food our autotrophic bacteria are also known as producers while our heterotrophic bacteria take on the roles of consumers and decomposers bacteria that are producers such as cyanobacteria believed to be the precursors to plants perform photosynthesis which means to make energy using light bacteria come in three shapes rod-like bacteria are called Vasili berry shaped or round shaped bacteria are called coxy and spiral shaped bacteria are called spur eyela the shape of bacteria that are in yogurt that's basilly the shape of bacteria that get you sick if you have strep throat that's coxy and the shape of bacteria that causes the disease lyme disease which is spread by tick bites is spur ila bacteria can have positive negative and neutral relationships with humans on the positive side bacteria can be used to create medicines and foods such as yogurt on the neutral side we have many bacteria that live in and on our bodies that don't bother us very much in fact many of them helped us with our immune system making them another positive relationship but bacteria can turn on us and make us sick at times if you eat questionable leftovers that have been in the fridge a little bit too long you might get really sick with food poisoning another negative to bacteria is when we overuse substances such as hand sanitizers or antibiotics over using these substances creates what are called superbugs or drug resistant bacteria by killing off bacteria by overusing hand sanitizers and antibiotics that eliminates the competition for stronger mutants of these different kinds of bacteria duper bugs not good our next topic are ARCA bacteria also known as archaea found in the domain Archaea archaea are among the oldest organisms on earth and are called extremophiles because they can handle very extreme environments in which other organisms would struggle to live like bacteria archaea are unicellular prokaryotes one celled organisms that lack a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles they can also be autotrophic or heterotrophic taking on the roles of consumers producers and decomposers the archaea that our producers are autotrophs can produce their food through a process called chemosynthesis which means making food using chemicals these organisms actually eat atoms of iron and molecules of chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide in thermic vents to get their energy we learned about three major groups of archaea methanogens thermophiles and hal files with antigens live in swamps and other places with very little to no oxygen in fact oxygen is toxic to them as part of their metabolism they give off the gas methane they can be used by humans in sewage treatment plants thermophiles live where it is very very hot they can survive in environments where other organisms would most certainly perish that's just where temperatures are far above the temperature at which water boils Alec files live in incredibly salty or briny environments they can live places such as the Dead Sea or the Great Salt Lake where other organisms would struggle to survive and for those of you who are curious because I had many questions about this psycrow files archaea that can live in extremely cold temperatures archaea are awesome because not only are they like living fossils and that they are among the oldest organisms on earth but they can give us a lot of insight to what earth was like when the planet was first beginning beyond that because they can live in such extreme environments it has been suggested by some scientists that archaea might possibly be a link to life on other planets if they can survive where there's no oxygen or tons of salt or intensity or a bitter bitter cold perhaps they could survive on other planets bacteria and archaea both reproduce asexually meaning that they don't need a partner to create the next generation they reproduce by way of a process called binary fission which means splitting into two one cell will double its genetic material and eventually split into two identical cells this allows both bacteria and archaea to reproduce very quickly this makes them excellent test subjects for scientific research but also explains how you can feel so great at the start of the day and so crummy by the end of the day if you catch something like the stomach flu or strep throat that's because bacteria can reproduce very quickly in your body and make you sick and now what is increasingly becoming my favorite kingdom of life on earth the protists protists are in the kingdom Protista in the domain Eukarya they are the first organisms that we have really learned about this year that are eukaryotic this means that their cells have true nuclei and membrane-bound organelles protists can perhaps be best defined by what they are not they are not animals they are not plants they are not fungi and for a long time they are often missed categorized into these groups today we know that they have their own Kingdom called the kingdom Protista although some protists have characteristics that make them seem similar to animals and others have characteristics that make them seem similar to plants and others still have characteristics that make them seem similar to fungi they are members of none of these kingdoms however we are going to dig a little deeper and appreciate all of the uniqueness that is the kingdom Protista protists are incredibly diverse they can be autotrophs they give you heterotrophs they can be multicellular or they can be unicellular it can reproduce sexually or they can reproduce asexually it really depends on the species that you're talking about they can also take on all major ecological roles producers consumers and decomposers autotrophic producing protists used photosynthesis and in fact photosynthetic algae which are protists not plants make most of Earth's oxygen Dov your breathing right now you should thank a protist we can think of the phyla which is plural of phylum of Protista as to fitting into three broad categories fungus-like protists plant-like protists and animal-like protists let's start by talking about fungus-like protists we talked about two main groups of fungus-like protists slime molds which like to live in cool damp areas such as the woods and water molds which can grow almost anywhere that's cool and damp but are especially prevalent in aquatic environments just like fungi fungus-like protists grow on what they eat and perhaps one of the most famous fungus-like protists is the one that caused the great potato famine in Ireland that was a water mould next up you have the plant-like protists we have six different phyla of plant-like protists the first three are all kinds of algae also known as kelp or seaweed brown algae grows in colder waters red algae grows in tropical environments and green algae the most diverse phylum of our plant-like protists can grow almost anywhere if you've walked by Mercer pond recently you've probably seen some green algae floating on the surface in addition to our three colors of algae we also have dinoflagellates photosynthetic organisms that often have two flagella that help them move and are the organisms on which we can blame red tides diatoms beautifully complex single-celled organisms that have cell walls made of cellulose and silica which is the same chemical as glass if you've ever walked on sand barefoot you have walked across diatoms shells and you glenoid our most complex plant-like protists these can switch between being autotrophs and heterotrophs they have an eye spot that allow them to detect light so that they can swim towards a light source and photosynthesize or alternatively they can chase after food particles pretty cool and last but certainly not least we have four main phyla of animal-like protists our flagellates use flagella which we've also seen in some plant-like protists like you glean oats and some species of bacterial flagella our whip-like tales that help an organism move many of the flagellate protists that we have studied and talked about our parasites meaning that they take over another organism called the host and wreak havoc on their body we also talked about silly eight protists till eight protists are more complex your bodies are covered in hundreds if not thousands of tiny little hairs called cilia which comes from the Latin word for eyelashes these little cilia helped the organisms propel themselves to the water and get food into their gullet which is like a mouth if you're a single-celled organism amoeba like protists use a pseudopod or a false foot to help them get around they extend out part of their cell membrane and then catch up the rest of their body it's kind of like when you're taking steps down the street you stick your foot out first and then the rest of your body catches up with you however amoeba and amoeba like protists don't have feet so they use a pseudo pod and our last category of animal-like protists would be the spore producing protists these are always parasitic which means that they cannot move on their own there are parasites that invade their hosts and wreak havoc on their bodies perhaps the most famous for producing protist is Plasmodium which causes malaria and is spread by mosquitoes so now let's compare and contrast these three kingdoms you have a Venn diagram something like this on your vocabulary sheet let's start with traits that are unique to the domain and Kingdom archaea archaea are in the domain Archaea they live in extreme environments and include the group's thermophiles Halla files and methanogens they are possibly the link to life on other planets and to Earth's past they are the Daredevils of life in that they live in these extreme places and they can also perform key moves this is now let's talk about what's unique to bacteria bacteria are found in the domain bacteria and they can be found nearly everywhere on earth including in and on your body right this very moment it can be useful in medicine scientific research and in food production and they include bacteria shapes poxy bacilli and spur ila now let's talk about what's unique to the kingdom Protista protists are in the domain Eukarya which means that they have eukaryotic cell that means their cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles they live in or near water and can be multicellular though most of them are unicellular they include our plant-like protists red green and brown algae diatoms dinoflagellates andyou glenoid are fungus-like protists water molds and slime molds at our animal-like protists deletes flagellates amoeba like protists and spore producing protists now let's talk about the overlap between archaea and bacteria archaea and bacteria are both prokaryotic which means that they have no nucleus and no membrane bound organelles they are always unicellular and are some of our earliest life forms some of them even live in your digestive tract now let's talk about the overlap between bacteria and protists some species of both bacteria and protists can photosynthesize another similarity between these two kingdoms is that some species can be pathogenic which means that they can cause diseases now let's talk about the overlap between archaea and Protista the kingdoms archaea and Protista are both less familiar to non-scientists but we know today that they are their own unique life-forms now let's talk about the similarities between all three of these kingdoms of life all three of these kingdoms of life have the four basic needs of all living things they all need food they all need water they all need some kind of air though not all of them need oxygen and they all need some kind of living space I'll be at a very small living space they also all display the six characteristics of all living things they're made of cells or maybe just one cell they respond to stimuli they reproduce they contain DNA they obtain and use energy and they grow and develop they can also all take on the roles depending on the species a producer of consumer or decomposer additionally all of these kingdoms contain some if not all unicellular species now for the part where I say all the important stuff

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