Your Body Is Designed to Attack a New Organ, Now We Know Why

Your Body Is Designed to Attack a New Organ, Now We Know Why

Imagine waiting for a new lung or kidney transplant
… you finally get one, go through intense surgery, and then after a few years, your
body’s like NOPE I DON’T LIKE THIS THING, GET IT OUT and rejects that vital organ. … heartbreaking, right? Transplant rejection happens, and more often
than you’d think. About 50% of all transplanted organs are rejected
within 10-12 years. That’s a staggering number. Organ rejection happens at the molecular level,
something just isn’t compatible, and finally, scientists think they’ve uncovered the basis
of this response. This is a-metaphorically-huge-but-literally
microscopic-thing! So we have to understand how the body deals
with a foreign lung or liver or whatever. And that relationship starts with the immune
system. So, let’s say you’re getting a new kidney
… It’s a whole ecosystem of living things. And it’s ALIEN. The immune system knows this because the cells
on the donor organ are different . But once it knows, it’s definitely not going to ignore
it. As far as the immune system is concerned it
could be a giant virus or poison! So, it tries to get rid of it! Your immune system is designed to attack anything
it doesn’t recognize. And there are two main parts within the human
immune system that are responsible for this 1-2 punch: the innate immune system and the
adaptive immune system. The adaptive immune system response is what
you think of, when you think “immune system.” This is defcon 1. White blood cells, are ready to attack the
invader. SHIT IS GETTIN’ REAL. But, white bloods don’t just attack anything. They need a snitch. They need to be told what to attack. That’s what’s been elusive for scientists,
the triggers for the innate immune system response. How do the t-cells get fired up enough to
attack your shiney new organ? Bear with me, we’re about to get real molecular. In a paper published in Science Immunology,
they found that t-cells won’t launch an offensive unless another immune cell, called a Dendritic
cell, yells, “intruder alert!” Dendritic cells are on the lookout for a molecule
called SIRP-alpha. If your kidney is put in my body, the SIRP-alpha
don’t match. When they aren’t a match, a receptor on
a monocyte called CD47 binds to that SIRP-alpha protein… The monocytes are another type of immune cells. Once that binding happens, the dendritic cell
rings the alarm and the big guns roll in… and that’s what causes organ rejection. Basically a protein interaction sets off a
chain reaction that eventually leads to bye, bye, kidney. The exciting part of this nitty-gritty molecular
discovery is that researchers think they can block that interaction between the SIRP-alpha
and CD47. Basically, the monocytes never get bound up,
so the immune system stays cool. This could prevent organ rejection and lead
to acceptance! But more research is needed. Plus, now that we know to look for it, we
can match the SIRP-alpha from donors and recipients, possibly causing lower organ rejection rates
overall! Being on a list for an organ for years, only
to have it rejected is devastating for the recipient, but think about it — maybe that
kidney could have worked in someone else! The more we know about this process, the better
we’ll be able to get organs to their forever homes, and keep them safe inside the crazy
neighborhood that is the human body. Special thanks to our sponsor, Domain dot
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domain names and web hosting when you use coupon code SEEKER at checkout. It’s hard enough to transplant a singular
organ, but some scientists are actually trying to transplant a human head.. Or I guess a whole human body? Check out our video about it, here. Do you guys have any burning science questions
you want us to answer? Let us know down in the comments, be sure
to like this video, and subscribe so you never miss an episode of Seeker.

100 thoughts on “Your Body Is Designed to Attack a New Organ, Now We Know Why”


  2. Perhaps focusing more on lab growing organ research would be a more comprehensive treatment for patient with organ failure…

  3. One of my schools most famous girls died because she needed her lung transplanted, but her body didn't accept it and she died sadly.. Rest In Peace. ;-;

  4. Heres the solution
    Give the patient AIDS after they have the organ transplant.
    The AIDS will attack the immune system and destroy it
    Therefore allowing the new organ to live freely without being damaged
    Moral of the story is – DONT DO DRUGS KIDS

  5. I paid to get my scientists to develope organs in lab using my genes … So if I need anything, I'll pick one exactly matching my DNA

  6. basicly its a password system for the body. say you have a fort that you are guarding and the only way to who is on your side is by a set of passwords. if someone new shows up and they dont have the password you block them out and send out the hounds to attack. what we need to get by this is find the master password for the body. unlike the basic passwords we have been useing same blood tipe and the same kind of bone marrow and so and so forth. the issue is each body can have its own master password like how each corp has its own backup break in password if the need pops up .

  7. One thing that bothered me is that she uses the word molecular even though they are talking about cells and I know it was a very small thing but it really irritated me

  8. This is all not needed watch this video on the link below they can grow you your own new organ with your own DNA no rejection.

  9. Kidney: Will you marry me body ?
    Body: No !!
    Doctor : Put the kidney in the body !
    Kidney :(DEAD)

  10. Why dont they try to match the blood type and then change organs i know that organs are hard to find bug maybe it could just skip this process entirely

  11. I really hate when people improperly use the DEFCON in their videos. DEFCON 5 is the lowest level, DEFCON 1 is highest. Come on people you use the internet to research these topics, 30 more seconds on the readiness level isn't going to kill you.

  12. I think of human body and organs as a piece of engineering marvel.. though very delicate and fragile, serve tons of functions..

    Though its sad that transplanted organ didnt find its place in the recepient body for too long, (10-12years max) its a neccesity, who knows what would happen if transplanted organ may last as long as the recepiant lives..

    We might trade off these organs as a commodity.. And who know what kind of atrocity might surface from it..

  13. Wait then if CD47 gene is put into SIRP-A someway removing and replacing SIRP-A with it then completing the transplant and not triggering the alarm for a difference?? Tell me if im wrong im just guessing?

  14. I still believe if your heart is bearing your alive….I'll keep my own organs and I don't want anybody else's…especially when a live specimen is worth 4million dollars I'm sure they give up hope real quick. Not to mention you get no pain meds or anything they paralyze you with drugs and gut u.

  15. i just think its amazing how our bodies can tell and its crazy how scientist need to study how their own bodies do what they and how they do it our own bodies are just phenomenal creations smarter than anything else carried over generations to generations its like were finally conscious enough to learn how we ourselves operate and we have no connection or conscious on how our subconscious mysterious brain/body does what it does its fucking bananas man

  16. Learn, to know more about 80th new organ just now discovered by scientists, its implications and uses in our body. You can know more detailed know-how about its uses in medical, acupuncture, sujok, acupressure system!

  17. People do know that if they suppress that enzyme, it will cause tumors to form because the immune system won't be able to check for mutations, right?

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